Daily Archives: December 9, 2014

Mandela hid in my house for six months

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Ramla Kibwana stands at the top of the stairs leading to the room in which Mandela and his fellow freedom fighters used to hide and above, the room upstairs where Mandela and colleagues used to stay. PHOTOS | ESTHER MNGODO 

A year has passed since Nelson Mandela, the South African apartheid revolutionary passed on. Many across Africa and across the world reverenced him for his courage and the spirit of forgiveness, which he upheld. Tanzania is known to be a friend of Madiba for its role in the freedom fighting movement. Apart from the national heart-felt contribution, individuals also share personal experiences of how they opened their homes to South Africa during that time.

Some stories were highlighted at the time of Madiba’s funeral, such as that of Vicky Nsilo Swai, a Tanzanian woman who kept Nelson Mandela’s shoes for 33 years in her home. But little is spoken about Ramla Kibwana, a ten cell leader in Soko Matola area in Mbeya city who claims to have given refuge to Mandela and his friends when they were on the run. She was a ten cell leader when Mandela arrived at her home back then.

Mama Kibwana recalls the words Nelson Mandela used to introduce himself to her after months of hiding in her house vividly. ‘Mimi ndio Mandela’ (I am Mandela), he said to her in Kiswahili. Mama Kibwana can clearly remember the six months Mandela spent in her house. Although she cannot recall the year, she clearly remembers a young man who she identifies as Mzee Mwembapa’s son knocking on her door at around 9:pm with two strange men. Their clothes were torn and their trousers were supported by suspenders. The young man who brought them told her that the two men had been sleeping in bars in Mabatini area, just a short distance from Soko Matola and needed a place to stay for a while. “I pitied them,” she says and adds: “It was at a time when many African countries were seeking independence. The young man told me that the men were from South Africa. So I knew what I was getting myself into.”

Officials from the South African High Commission in Dar es Salaam are unable to verify Mama Kibwana’s account. However, Mama Kibwana says that what she did was a heroic act. She doesn’t understand why her family was never commended for it. Mama Kibwana didn’t know the men’s identity. And when they came with two other men on the second day, she was satisfied with the names that they mentioned to her.

It wasn’t until later that she came to learn that her South African guests were Mandela and a man who she recalls as Makubalo. At first, Mama was hesitant to retell the story to yet ‘another journalist.’ “Journalists have documented my story in the past. One even gave me Sh 1,000 after the interview. I felt so disrespected. I wonder what the point is in telling my story if no one can even come back to say ‘Thank you, what you did was brave’. I see no point,” she says.

The story of her family’s heroic act takes Mama Kibwana back to the days when the roof of her house wasn’t falling and the staircase to the first floor where Mandela and his comrades were hiding was strong. The house is located at the junction of Kanisa Street and Barabara ya Tano. This is where Mama Kibwana grew up. Her father gave her the house since she was the only child. Now, it is home to five other families, each paying Sh10,000 as rent per month.

When Mandela and his friend were introduced to her, she was selling Kimpumu, some local brew made from millet. She offered them some before they left an hour and a half later. Since they spoke very little Swahili, the young man who brought them was their translator. He spoke some English. It was around 10:30 pm when they returned to Mama Kibwana’s the following day. They were quite restless, she says. They would get on their feet on hearing someone knocking and couldn’t sit still. Mama Kibwana wasn’t afraid to host them even though she had a whole family depending on her.

Both her parents were deceased and so she lived with her grandmother, her aunt and seven children. The oldest was 28 while the youngest was just a teenager. Only two among the seven, a son and a daughter are living.

“I told my family to keep this a secret. It wasn’t hard for me because I didn’t have any girlfriends to worry about. I was certain that no one would gossip about it. I was the only child to my parents and had grown up to be very independent. And at the time, my husband and I were already divorced,” she explains.

When the men came, Mandela’s leg was swollen. They were four this time. Mama Kibwana said that she mixed some flour, eggs and herbs and massaged him. It took about three weeks for him to recover.

“Their clothes were very dirty. I gave them my vitenge (African print wrap-around) and washed their clothes. I bought clothes for them two weeks later. And a week later, I bought some more for the other two,” she says. Second hand clothes were famously known as ‘mitunguo’ back then as they were sold on hangers. The cheapest would go for Sh 50 while the most expensive one could cost Sh 200.

The room Mandela slept in was on the first floor. It has a tiny window through which they could see the street outside, but the ones outside could not see them. “I had to create a veranda on the inside where they could rest during the day and get some fresh air. But there was no way they could walk outside during the day,” she explains.

With now four more mouths to feed, Mama Kibwana had to work harder. Mandela had given him Sh 500 the first day he came for the local brew she sold them. But he never gave any financial contribution afterwards. At first she used to buy two debes of the local brew for her business, but later on, she decided to make it herself so as to cut costs. She sold one litre of the local brew for Sh 100.

In the earlier days of their stay, Mandela and his colleagues didn’t eat much, Mama Kibwana says. She decided to join them during lunchtime so that they would be more at ease. “Whatever I ate, they ate as well,” she says adding that Mandela loved Ugali and fish. He didn’t like beans that were cooked with tomatoes and other vegetables. He just wanted them boiled. Makubalo’s favourite was Ugali with mlenda. She smiles at the thought of Makubalo calling out to her: “Mama kama malenda ipo nipe,” she mimics how he would ask for Mlenda and laughs. She says Makubalo didn’t have most of his front teeth.

According to Mama Kibwana, the men used to wake up at 6am to take breakfast. But later on, they would shower at 5am and then go back to bed until 8am when they had breakfast. They used to sleep a lot in the beginning. “I guess they were very tired from all the running,” she says.

Their host would put two buckets in the room for them to relieve themselves whenever they needed to instead of going to the toilet downstairs, just in case there was a guest and he saw them. One would be full of water and the other would be empty. And if they ever went out, it only happened at night. They would never go out together, but one at a time.

“Four months on, I remember hearing on the 4pm evening news on Radio Tanzania that they were looking for a South African man named Mandela. For about half an hour, I sat there wondering what I was going to do. Although I didn’t know if Mandela was among the men in my house, I knew that there was that possibility. I feared for my life. I was torn between kicking them out and calling the police. But I knew they had nowhere else to go to,” she says.

As she served them food that evening, Mama Kibwana told them about the news on the radio. “Mandela himself responded, but of course I didn’t know that it was him all this time. He said ‘Oh Mandela. I wonder where he went. You know we all left in a hurry and it has been a long journey from South Africa. We do not know where he went.’ He misled me,” she says with a chuckle.

It wasn’t until a few days later when he revealed his true identity. She remembers him saying: ‘Mimi ndio Mandela.’ (I am Mandela). Mama Kibwana was shocked and just muttered: ‘Alhamdulillah’ (Which is Arabic for All praise and thanks to God). “He asked me why I gave such a remark, and I told him that I was grateful to God,” she says. The Kibwana’s had also been fortunate to host the late Mwalimu Nyerere at some point in history, according to Mama Kibwana.

“There are several homes here in Mbeya which once provided refuge to politicians during the independence era. But I am surprised that nothing is being done to even say ‘Thank You, your courage is recognised and appreciated’,” she says bitterly.

By Esther Mngodo

The Citizen

Umwihariko wa Revolisiyo: Abaturage Bakenera umu Leader nyawe Ubafasha Guhirika Umunyagitugu.

Banyarwanda nkunda, nshuti basomyi,

ubushize mu Umwihariko wa Revolisiyo twarebeye hamwe uburyo umuntu umwe n’agatsiko ke gatoya babasha gukandamiza miliyoni 11. Twabonye ko agatsiko gatoya kaba gashyize hamwe kandi kazi icyo gashaka. Abaturage miliyoni 11 bo baba batatanye maze bikorohereza agatsiko kugenda karoba umwe umwe nk’uko 11.000.000= 1+1+1+1+…..

Uyu munsi mu mutwe wa 2 w’Umwihariko wa Revolisiyo turarebera hamwe uburyo leadership ( ubuyobozi) ari ngombwa cyane kugira ngo abaturage bakanguke. Nimwongere mwitegereze iyi foto hasi aha. Murabona ko umunyagitugu arimo atuka abaturage nyamara bo ntibabona ko bashatse bava ku rubaho maze ikibazo kigakemuka. Kuki batabikora? Ni uko habura uwabarya akara.

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UMUTWE WA 2 :  Abantu benshi bakomeje kwibaza impamvu AMASHYAKA ATAVUGA RUMWE NA KAGAME YANANIWE KWEGERANYA ABANYARWANDA NGO BASEZERERE AGATSIKO ?

Martin LUTHER KING yafashije abirabura bo muri USA kwisuganya basezerera politiki y’ivangura bakorerwaga! Abanyarwanda nitwige kwita kuba Leaders bacu, tubafashe kuzadufasha !

Ko Urwanda rwagushije ishyano ryo kuba ruyoborwa n’abantu b’abicanyi ruharwa mu by’ukuri bari bakwiye gufatwa bagashyikirizwa ubutabera, ntawe utabibona kandi nta we bitababaza, baba Abanyarwanda cyangwa abanyamahanga (Mandats d’arrêt)! Igikomeje kuba urujijo ni ukubona mu banyapolitiki bagaragara ari bake cyane bagerageza gufasha Abanyarwanda kwisuganya ngo duce ingoyi ituziritse, dusezerere bidasubirwaho agatsiko k’uyu munyagitugu Paul KAGAME kadufasheho ingwate! Kuki abanyapolitiki bagerageje kugira icyo bakora badatera kabiri badasubiranyemo! Biterwa n’iki ?

IBANGA RYA 4 : Intwaro za kirimbuzi si ngombwa

N’ubwo umunyagitugu n’agatsiko ke bagaragaza ko bafite imbaraga zidasanzwe ; buriya guhirika ingoma ye ntibisaba gufata intwaro za kirimbuzi, dore ko abaturage badashobora kurusha Paul KAGAME gutunga nyinshi !

Abantu benshi tuganira, dutekereza amaherezo y’ingoma y’umunyagitugu Kagame bagira batya bakagusha ku ntambara. Bati ni ngombwa guhaguruka tukamurwanya mu buryo bwa gisirikari, nta yindi nzira ishoboka, ubwo imbunda ari zo yubakiyeho ubutegetsi bwe, ni nazo zikwiye kubumukuraho. Igitekerezo cyabo singisuzugura. Gusa rero iyo witegereje akarere k’Ibiyaga Bigari, kugira ngo hagire umutwe ufata gahunda yo gutangiza intambara kugera ubwo uzahirika Kagame si ibya none. FDLR imaze imyaka hafi 20 mu mashyamba ntacyo yashoboye kugeraho uretse guhora yitabara gusa! Ndetse njye nsanga uwateza intambara yaba ahaye Kagame amahirwe yo kongera kumara indi myaka itari mike ku butegetsi kuko yaba abonye icyo akora hagati aho : kongera kumena amaraso y’Abanyarwanda ku mu mugaragaro, yitwaje ko ari mu ntambara.

Intambara tuzi umuntu yakwita classique, iyi yo kurunda ingabo n’intwaro, ukabona igihugu duhana imbibi uhagurukiramo (Base arrière) ugatera Urwanda, ntishoboka muri iki gihe, yenda izashoboka nko mu myaka 20 iri imbere. Ibyo kandi Kagame arabizi neza ! Twita igihe turota ibidafite akamaro mu gihe hari indi zira ya bugufi (plus efficace), ihendutse kandi yubahiriza uburenganzira bwa buri wese.

IBANGA RYA 5 : Uko ingoma y’igitugu ihirima

Guhirika ingoma y’umunyagitugu wigize nk’intare ntibisaba gufata intwaro no kumurwanya. Ikimukoraho bwangu kandi mu buryo budasubirwaho ni ukumwambura imbaraga abaturage bamutiza akaba ari nazo akoresha abica urw’agashinyaguro!

Twabonye ko nta yandi maboko umunyagitugu agira uretse ay’abaturage : ni bamwe muri twe akoresha kugira ngo abohe abandi. Arandengaya nkamwihorera, yahohotera abandi nkituramira. Anyambura inzu yanjye nkamugerekeraho n’isambu yanjye, yamfatira umugore ku ngufu nkamutegeza n’umukobwa wanjye kugira ngo ndebe ko bwacya kabiri…muri make abaturage bahindurwa ABACAKARA kubera ko bemera kubigiramo uruhare!

Nyamara abaturage bafashe icyemezo cyo kwanga kongera gukorera umunyagitugu ubamereye nabi, bakanga kongera kwitabira gahunda ze ; bagize batya bagahagarika akazi kose iminsi 10 gusa (amashuri, amasoko, akazi ko mu biro….), bwa bukaka bw’umunyagitugu bayoberwa iyo burigitiye, za ngufu yiratanaga zayoyoka. None se za ndege ze z’intambara zahaguruka zikajya kurasa ingo z’abaturage batanamututse? Imbunda zajya mu ngo zose kurasa abantu batari no mu myigaragambyo ? Gusa rero kugira ngo abaturage bashobore kwemera ko iyo nzira ishoboka hagomba Abaleaders babitangira, bakabasobanurira igikwiye gukorwa n’inzira byanyuramo, bakababa hafi . Abafite amashyaka ya “opozisiyo” niko kazi kabo! 

Ikibazo : Kuki abagize amashyaka atavuga rumwe na Paul Kagame bahora bacikamo ibice  aho kwishyira hamwe ngo bafashe Abanyarwanda kwisuganya ?

Kuba aya mashyaka yitwa aya “opozisiyo” ahora acikamo ibice si uko abayobozi bayo ari ko baba babyifuza, yewe si n’uko Kagame aba yabahaye ruswa. Hari impamvu ebyiri zikomeye zituma aya mashyaka adafata ngo yibyaremo ingufu zihagije zahindura ibintu.

IBANGA RYA 6 : Kuba umuLEADER si ibya bose

Burya abantu bose ntibashobora kuba abanyapolitiki bo mu rwego rw’aba Leader ngo bishoboke ! Impamvu ni uko kuba umu Leader ari impano bose batahawe. Urugero: twese twikundira indirimbo nziza icurangitse neza ; nyamara twese siko twashobora kuyiririmba n’ubwo twaba tubyifuza karijana! Tuvugeko yewe dushoboye gukora imyitozo, tukinjira mu itorero, tukabasha kuyiririmba neza! Nyamara ntibivuze ko dushobora no kuyihimba! Guhimba indirimbo nziza igakundwa n’abantu ni impano yahawe umuhanzi! Benshi twaririmba ariko guhanga ni urundi rwego. Aba Leader ba politiki bagomba kugira iyo mpano imeze nk’iy’abahanzi. Ni nayo mpamvu badakunze kuba benshi!

Igitera ingorane muri politiki ireba Urwanda, ni uko Abanyarwanda bakomeje kwibeshya ko buri wese, ubishatse wese, n’iyo yaba nta n’aho yanabyize, ashobora kuba umu Leader, agahimba ishyaka, rikagira icyo rigeraho ! Oya ibyo ni ukwibeshya, …. ni yo mpamvu amashyaka ya “opozisiyo”, yaba ayo mu gihugu, yaba akorera mu buhungiro, ntacyo arageraho, imyaka ikaba ibaye 20 !

Ikindi Abanyarwanda babuze ni uko batazi gushishoza ngo nibabona muribo havutse umuntu ushobora kuba umu Leader, bamuhe agaciro akwiye, bamwiteho, bamufashe, bamwubahirize, bamurengere!

Umu Leader muri politiki ni muntu ki ?

Si wawundi wirirwa yivuga ibigwi cyangwa yifotoza mu binyamakuru kandi ntacyo akora ngo kigaragare! Umuleader ni umuntu ufite iyo mpano nko mu maraso, uyu uvuga abandi bagatega amatwi kandi bakaryoherwa, kuburyo yababwira ati “nimujye imbere tugende” bakamwumvira! Bene abo nibo dukomeje kubura, abake dufite tukabapfukirana! Ntibajya babura burundu, baba bahari. Dukwiye kubishakamo, tukabashyira imbere, tukabaha ibyo bakeneye (inkunga), nibo bazadufasha gusezerera ingoma y’igitugu ya Paul Kagame n’abicanyi be!

Gusa rero politiki ni ikintu umuntu adakora wenyine n’iyo yaba afite impano y’akataraboneka.

IBANGA RYA 7 : Umuleader akenera ikipe

Kugira ngo umuleader agire icyo ageraho akenera Ikipe y’abantu hagati ya 6 n’ 8, bumvikana batagambanirana, mbese umubare ungana n’uw’abagize ka gatsiko umunyagitugu akenera ! Iyo kipe niyo ibyara imbaraga nyabuzima ziyobora abaturage, zigahangana n’ingufu ntindi umunyagitugu akoresha yangiza ibintu. Kubona abantu 6-8, bameze batyo ntibyoroshye!!!! Babonetse bakishyira hamwe, iby’ingoma y’inkoramaraso ya Paul Kagame byaba birangiye!

Ikipe ya politiki ikorwa ite? 

Ni nk’ikipe y’umupira w’amaguru. Kurundanya abantu 11 ukabashyira mu kibuga ntibihagije ! Hagomba umutoza (Leader), maze agafasha abakinnyi gukora imyitozo ! Uko bagenda bamenyana, barushaho gutahura ubushobozi bwa buri wese : bati “wowe wakina mu izamu kurusha abandi, uriya yakina neza mu ba kabiri, uriya yajya atsinda ibitego”…..bityo bityo buri wese agashyirwa mu mwanya akwiye kandi ufasha Ikipe gutsinda ibitego!

Isima (Principe) ituma ikipe ifata ni iyihe ?

IBANGA RYA 8 : Igituma ikipe ikomera

Hari uburyo bubiri : Agatsiko ka Paul Kagame gafata cyangwa se gakomera kubera iterabwoba abashyiraho. Bazi neza ko uwaca ku ruhande akagambana, ahita akubitwa inyundo. Ubwo bwoba butuma Agatsiko kagira ubumwe buzaramba igihe cyose Paul Kagame azaba agifite ubushobozi bwo kubashyiraho iterabwoba rye! Ntawe uzava muri kariya gatsiko ngo abure kwicwa kuko aba azi amabanga menshi ! N’iyo yahungira mu mahanga, bamusangayo bakamutsindayo! Coloneli Patrick Karegeya bamutsinze muri Africa y’epfo,jenerali Nyamwasa bamaze kumuhusha kenshi,…

Uburyo bwa kabiri bwo gukora ikipe igafata ni ugushaka abantu bashobora kugirana ubucuti bukomeye … Icy’ingenzi ni uko baba abantu bashobora kumenyana, bakagirana icyizere kibyara ubucuti ubu budashobora kugambanirana. Ikipe yubakiye ku bucuti iragora kuyirema ariko iyo ibayeho iraramba kandi igakora byiza kurusha iyubakiye ku iterabwoba, kuko abayirimo banezezwa n’ibyo bakora. Niyo mpamvu bakorera rubanda babyishimiye! 

Ngicyo ikibuze mu mashyaka ya opozisiyo nyarwanda! Nta shyaka na rimwe ririho muri iki gihe rifite umuleader ugaragara n’ikipe ifatika yamufasha kuyobora Abanyarwanda mu nzira y’impinduramitegekere igamije kubungabunga ubwigenge bw’igihugu n’ukwishyira ukizana kwa buri mwenegihugu ku giti cye ! N’amashyaka agerageje kwisuganya usanga ari nk’udukipe twa Nyumbakumi cyangwa tw’Akagal ! Umunyagitugu Paul Kagame ntabwo azakurwaho n’ikipe ya Segiteri…azakurwaho n’ikipe y’aba“profesiyoneri” ! Ariko akaga karushijeho kuntera impungenge ni uko iyo habonetse umuleader, aho kumushyigikira ngo tumuhe ibyo akeneye, akore ikipe itunganye yazadutabara twese, turamutererana, cyangwa tukamurwanya! Iyo ngeso isa no kwikora mu nda niyo izatuma Abanyarwanda bahera ku kiziriko cy’umunyagitugu Paul Kagame, abo yashyize mu gihome bapfire ku ngoyi, abagiye ishyanga bagwe ku gasi…

Banyarwanda, Banyarwandakazi, nitudahindura imyumvire, turaheze….!

Biracyaza… 

Niba ufite icyo ushaka gusobanuza, watwandikira kuri aderesi ikurikira:

ishema_party@yahoo.fr cyangwa se ugasura urubuga http://www.ishemaparty.mobi ukatwandikira ukoresheje uburyo bwateganyijwe. Ushobora no gusura imbuga zacu kuri facebook.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revealed: how the wealth gap holds back economic growth

OECD report rejects trickle-down economics, noting ‘sizeable and statistically negative impact’ of income inequality

Organisation for Economic Co-operation a

OECD secretary-general Angel Gurría said that ‘addressing high and growing inequality is critical to promote strong and sustained growth’. Photograph: Eric Piermont/AFP/Getty Images

The west’s leading economic thinktank on Tuesday dismissed the concept of trickle-down economics as it found that the UK economy would have been more than 20% bigger had the gap between rich and poor not widened since the 1980s.

Publishing its first clear evidence of the strong link between inequality and growth, the Paris-based Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development proposed higher taxes on the rich and policies aimed at improving the lot of the bottom 40% of the population, identified by Ed Miliband as the “squeezed middle”.

Trickle-down economics was a central policy for Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan in the 1980s, with the Conservatives in the UK and the Republicans in the US confident that all groups would benefit from policies designed to weaken trade unions and encourage wealth creation.

The OECD said that the richest 10% of the population now earned 9.5 times the income of the poorest 10%, up from seven times in the 1980s. However, the result had been slower, not faster, growth.

It concluded that “income inequality has a sizeable and statistically negative impact on growth, and that redistributive policies achieving greater equality in disposable income has no adverse growth consequences.

“Moreover, it [the data collected from the thinktank’s 34 rich country members] suggests it is inequality at the bottom of the distribution that hampers growth.”

According to the OECD, rising inequality in the two decades after 1985 shaved nine percentage points off UK growth between 1990 and 2000. The economy expanded by 40% during the 1990s and 2000s but would have grown by almost 50% had inequality not risen. Reducing income inequality in Britain to the level of France would increase growth by nearly 0.3 percentage points over a 25-year period, with a cumulated gain in GDP at the end of the period in excess of 7%.

“These findings have relevant implications for policymakers concerned about slow growth and rising inequality,” the paper said.

“On the one hand it points to the importance of carefully assessing the potential consequences of pro-growth policies on inequality: focusing exclusively on growth and assuming that its benefits will automatically trickle down to the different segments of the population may undermine growth in the long run, in as much as inequality actually increases.

“On the other hand, it indicates that policies that help limiting or – ideally – reversing the long-run rise in inequality would not only make societies less unfair, but also richer.”

Rising inequality is estimated to have knocked more than 10 percentage points off growth in Mexico and New Zealand, nearly nine points in the UK, Finland and Norway, and between six and seven points in the United States, Italy and Sweden.

The thinktank said governments should consider rejigging tax systems to make sure wealthier individuals pay their fair share. It suggested higher top rates of income tax, scrapping tax breaks that tend to benefit higher earners and reassessing the role of all forms of taxes on property and wealth.

However, the OECD said, its research showed “it is even more important to focus on inequality at the bottom of the income distribution. Government transfers have an important role to play in guaranteeing that low-income households do not fall further back in the income distribution”.

The authors said: “It is not just poverty (ie the incomes of the lowest 10% of the population) that inhibits growth … policymakers need to be concerned about the bottom 40% more generally – including the vulnerable lower-middle classes at risk of failing to benefit from the recovery and future growth. Anti-poverty programmes will not be enough.”

Angel Gurría, the OECD’s secretary general, said: “This compelling evidence proves that addressing high and growing inequality is critical to promote strong and sustained growth and needs to be at the centre of the policy debate. Countries that promote equal opportunity for all from an early age are those that will grow and prosper.”

Source: The Guardian, December 9, 2014.