Daily Archives: February 25, 2015

PARIS: APPEL A LA MANIFESTATION DU 27/02/2015 CONTRE LA VENUE DU DICTATEUR PAUL KAGAME

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POUR PROTESTER CONTRE LA VENUE A L’UNESCO DU DICTATEUR –SANGUINAIRE PAUL KAGAME CE 27 FÉVRIER 2015.

LES ASSOCIATIONS ET ORGANISATIONS DE LA COMMUNAUTÉ FRANCO-RWANDAISE

En partenariat avec les organisations et associations congolaises et rwandaises de France et de Belgique

ORGANISENT

UNE MANIFESTATION A PARIS

VENDREDI 27 FÉVRIER 2015 A PARTIR DE 13H00

Rassemblement à l’angle de l’avenue de Saxe et l’avenue de Ségur Métro Ségur et Cambronne

PROGRAMME:

Manifestations, déploiement de banderoles et de pancartes, distribution de tracts, REMISE de mémorandum au Directeur Général de l’UNESCO.

OBJET:

  • ALERTER l’opinion française et internationale sur les crimes contre l’humanité, les crimes de guerre et les actes de génocide commis par le FPR de Paul Kagame au Rwanda et en République Démocratique du Congo ;
  • PROTESTER contre la venue à l’UNESCO du président rwandais Paul Kagame, accusé des pires crimes contre l’humanité, au Rwanda et en RD Congo;
  • DÉNONCER les crimes graves en COURS au Rwanda et les immixtions politiques dans les procédures judiciaires engagées par le juge d’instruction français contre Kagame et ses proches collaborateurs dans l’affaire de l’attentat terroriste contre l’avion présidentiel le 6 avril 1994 ;
  • EXIGER que la France, pays des droits de l’homme et membre du Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU, apporte tout son appui politique et diplomatique au Rapport Mapping publié le 1er octobre 2010 par le Haut Commissaire des Nations Unies pour les droits de l’homme, lequel rapport accuse les troupes du général Kagame de crimes contre l’humanité, de crimes de guerre et d’actes de génocide en RDC de 1993 à 2003 et préconise la création d’un Tribunal international ad hoc chargé de poursuivre et de juger les criminels mis en cause par ce rapport ;
  • DEMANDER l’arrêt des harcèlements et assassinats d’opposants politiques ;
  • EXIGER l’expulsion immédiate des escadrons de la mort dits INTORE envoyés par Paul Kagame pour traquer ses opposants dans l’Hexagone et dans les autres pays de l’Union européenne ;
  • EXIGER la libération immédiate et sans condition de tous les prisonniers politiques ;
  • EXIGER l’ouverture du dialogue politique entre le gouvernement rwandais et son opposition y compris les FDLR en vue de résoudre définitivement le problème rwandais.

Fait à Paris le 23 février 2015.

Pour le Comité d’organisation,

Augustin Sebahakwa (sé)

Président du COVIGLA

Collectif des victimes des crimes de masse commis dans la région de grands lacs africains.

Contacts France : +33615731510, +33620832528, +33659222780.  Contact Belgique     : +32485625007

E-mail : covigla@gmail.com

Amakosa ya Paul Kagame

Intangiriro

Buri wese mu bayoboye u Rwanda afite ibyiza ashimwa n’ibibi yagawa. Niyo mpamvu iyi nyandiko yashoboraga no guhabwa izindi nyito nyinshi nka : “Bose ni bamwe, Nyina ubabyara ni umwe, uwabaroze ntiyakarabye, amafuti y’umugabo ni bwo buryo bwe, gutwara ntawe byananiye kireka uwo batabihaye” n’izindi.

Icyo iyi nyandiko igamije si ukunegura, ahubwo ni ukwiga (gucukumbura) no kwigisha amateka y’u Rwanda. Abanyarwanda bose bakeneye kuyamenya kandi bakayakira uko ari batirengagije ibibi n’ibyiza byayaranze, ibibabaje n’ibishimishije. Abayoborwa bakeneye kuyamenya kugirango hatazagira ubabeshya cyangwa akabayobya kandi aribo ba “Nyirurwanda”.

Abayobora bakeneye kuyamenya kugirango bayobore neza, kandi birinde kugwa mu mitego n’ibishuko ababanjirije baguyemo. Ibyiza  umuyobozi akoze bituma abayoborwa bagubwa neza, bakagira ituze, bagatera imbere. Amakosa, amafuti n’ibibi by’umukuru w’igihugu byo bituma igihugu gicura imiborogo. Ubishidikanya yirebere aho u Rwanda rugeze (aharinidimuka), asubize amaso inyuma arebe ibyaruranze muri iyi myaka duteye umugongo.

Ahari mwakwibaza muti “iyi nyandiko izaba iteye ite ?” Izaba ari uruhererekane, urudaca rugizwe n’ibice byinshi bikurikiranye kandi bifite ikibihuza (sérei, sery). Turahera kuri Paul Kagame (2000 – ?), tumanuke (cyangwa tuzamuke) tujye ku uwamubanjirije ari we Pasteur Bizimungu (1994 – 2000). Hazakurikiraho Théodore Sindikubwabo (Mata-Nyakanga 1994), Juvénal Habyarimana ( 1973 – 1994), Grégoire Kayibanda (1961–1973), Dominique Mbonyumutwa (Mutarama 1961 – Ukwakira 1961), Jean Baptiste Kigeli wa 5 Ndahindurwa (1959-1961), Charles Léon Pierre Mutara wa 3 Rudahigwa (1931-1959), Yuhi wa 4 Musinga (1896-1931), Mibambwe wa 4 Rutarindwa (1895-1896), Kigeli wa 4 Rwabugiri (1853-1895), Mutara wa 2 Rwogera (1830 – 1853), …….  .    Tuzakomeza kugera aho dushoboye.

Byaba byiza namwe abasomyi mugize uruhare kuri iyi nyandiko. Nzagerageza kuvuga amakosa y’abayoboye u Rwanda uko bagiye bakurikirana ; ariko nshobora no kuva kuri umwe nkajya ku wundi ntubahirije uko bagiye bakurikirana mu gihe. Namwe rero abasomyi mushobora kuvuga icyo mutekereza (commentaires) ku ugezweho, ariko mushobora no gukora inyandiko kuri umwe cyangwa kuri benshi mubo niyemeje kuzagira icyo mvugaho. Uyu munsi turahera ku ngoma ya Paul Kagame. Mbifurije kunyurwa n’ibyo musoma.

I.       Paul Kagame (2000 – ?) : Igice cya 1

Ni nde wamenya igihe Paul Kagame yatangiriye kuyobora u Rwanda ? Kuva mu w’1994 kugeza mu w’ 2000 yari yungirije umukuru w’igihugu, akabifatanya n’indi mirimo ikomeye myinshi irimo : kuba umugaba mukuru w’ingabo, ministiri w’ingabo no kuba yungirije umuyobozi w’ishyaka FPR-Inkotanyi. Amahanga yose ndetse n’Abanyarwanda babonaga ko ari we “gikonyozi (homme fort)” mu Rwanda, kandi ni ko byari bimeze koko. Ntacyo umukuru w’igihugu yashoboraga gukora umwungirije atacyemeye. Ariko nk’uko tuzabibona mu minsi iri imbere, umwungiriza we yakoraga icyo ashatse cyose nta nkomyi. N’ikimenyimenyi, aho abereye umukuru w’igihugu mu mwaka w’2000, umwanya w’uwungirije umukuru w’igihugu wahereyeko uvaho.

Ikosa rikomeye Paul Kagame ari gukora muri iyi minsi, ni ugushaka kwihambira ku butegetsi amazeho imyaka myinshi kandi itegeko nshinga ryamuhaga uburyo bwo kwigendera ku neza. “Umuntu atinda mu rushya, akabyina nabi” kandi ngo “Icyicaro cyiza cyivanwamo n’umwana uzi ubwenge”. Harya ngo “ukuboko kwafashe ingoma ntikurekura kireka bagutemye” ? Ubu koko igihugu cyongere gicure imiborogo, gitembe imivu y’amaraso, kiyoborwe nabi kubera irari ry’umuntu umwe n’iry’agatsiko kamukikije ?

Ikosa rya 2 rikomeye Paul Kagame akomeje gukora ni umubano mubi n’amahanga cyane cyane n’ibihugu bihana imbibi n’u Rwanda. Abantu baricwa umusubizo i Butembo-Beni ho muri Repubulika iharanira demokarasi ya Congo, abarokotse bakavuga ko baterwa n’abagizi ba nabi bavuga ikinyarwanda n’ilingala, ubwo benshi bagaherako bakeka ndetse bemeza ko Paul Kagame abiri inyuma. Mu minsi ishize mu Burundi hadutse umutwe w’inyeshyamba zitivuze izina. Ingabo z’u Burundi zagose abawugize, zibicira kubamara, kandi zibica nabi. Icyo gihe nabwo Paul Kagame yashyizwe mu majwi. Mu migi imwe n’imwe ya Tanzaniya hagiye gushira umwaka haba ibitero bimeze nk’iby’amabandi yitwaje intwaro, bikavugwa mu mfurapfuriko ko aho naho ari Paul Kagame ushaka kuhacana umuriro nk’uwo yakije mu Rwanda. Bashobora kuba bamubeshyera ! Ariko rero “Nyiri ikirimi kibi yatanze umurozi gupfa”. Umunsi abo baturanyi bagize bati “umuturanyi mubi arutwa n’itongo”, inzovu zizatsitsurana, maze utwatsi abe ari two tuhababarira.

Intambara ku mipaka, iterabwoba (terreur) imbere mu gihugu”, nguko uko u Bufaransa bwigeze kumera igihe gito bwamaze buyobowe na Maximilien Robespierre muri revolisiyo y’Abafaransa.

Ikosa rya 3 rya Paul Kagame turikojejeho imitwe y’intoki : ni iterabwoba imbere mu gihugu. Ingero zibyerekana ni nyinshi cyane, nta wazirondora ngo azirangize. Aho bigaragarira cyane ni mu ukwiyongera kw’indwara zibasira umutima n’ubwonko. Kuva Paul Kagame yatangira gutegeka u Rwanda, izo ndwara zikubye inshuro zirenga 100% mu gihugu. Ni byo koko abakurambere babivuze ukuri ngo “abantu bategekwa n’Abega bahorana umutima mu mutwe”.

Ejobundi le 24 Mutarama 2015, padiri Célestin Hakizimana yahawe ubwepiskopi, atangira umurimo yatorewe na Papa wo kuyobora diyosezi gatolika ya Gikongoro. Yavuze ijambo (disikuru) ryiza cyane, ariko naryo ryerekana ukuntu Abanyarwanda bahora mu bwoba. Icyambere cyo, ntiyigeze acisha uwamubanjirije, ari we Nyakwigendera Musenyeri Augustin Misago. Ingoma ya Paul Kagame yaramwangaga ku buryo benshi, n’ubwo nta gihamya ifadika babifitiye, bahamya ko yagize uruhare mu rupfu rwe rwaje rutunguranye le 12 Werurwe 2012. Musenyeri Célestin yatuye ubwepiskopi bwe abantu barimo na se umubyara witwaga Kagwiza. Yavuze ko yitabye Imana mu w’1994, ariko umubi ni uwahingutsa ko yishwe n’Inkotanyi. Narabirebye ngaruka kuri wa mwanzuro ko Abanyrwanda bose babaho mu iterabwoba bashyirwaho n’ingoma ya Paul Kagame.

Ikosa rya Paul Kagame turangirizaho uyu munsi ni ugukenesha abaturage abizi neza kandi abishaka. Ntihakagire ukangwa n’imiturirwa n’ibindi bishashagirana i Kigali no mu yindi mijyi, cyangwa n’imibare (ibaruzamibare, statistiques) ibeshya itangwa na leta  y’u Rwanda. Mu bice bimwe na bimwe by’iyo mijyi no mu cyaro abantu barashize, baricwa n’inzara. Nk’uko byavuzwe mu kanya, Paul Kagame yicisha Abanyarwanda inzara abizi neza kandi abishaka. Si bwo bwa mbere mu mateka y’isi ubutegetsi bw’igitugu bwicisha nkana abaturage inzara, ariko Paul Kagame we afite impamvu y’umwihariko ibimutera.

Iyo mpamvu niyo tuzaganiraho ubutaha. Bizadufasha kugira imbonerahamwe y’amakosa yose ya Paul Kagame. Ntawakomeza kuyarondora rimwe ku rindi ngo azayarangize kuko ameze b’ibidomo byo ku ruhu rw’ingwe cyangwa rw’imondo.

Jean de Dieu Musemakweli

BIRACYAZA…..

2017: The Famous Article #101 of Rwandan Constitution, Touch it at Your Own Peril

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In his attempt to condone a wicked intention to sell the idea of a third term in favor of Paul Kagame at expense of democracy, Joseph Rwagatare wrote in the pro- government newspaper The New Times that not the term limits, rather the track record counts whilst determining who should and should not be elected or reelected. Rwagatare misses the point and, purposely or not, misleads the readers to make us believe that a political party means exclusively its leader. Far from the truth!

It is true that a particular political party could get reelected in subsequent campaigns. The leaders as individuals, however, must have limitations on electability because of main reasons that vary from one society to another.  I intend to explain below to underline once for all that in a society like ours, given our far and recent historical experience, the culture of peaceful political changeover must be privileged. It is imperative unless we forgot where we come from.

  1. The Law and its intention

Although the law is one thing necessary in a society, its applicability and implementation should remain in accord with its intention. For instance, here we are talking about the presidential term limit. All anyone can read in the constitution is that famous article #101 which states that

“The President of the Republic is elected for a term of seven years renewable only once. Under no circumstances shall a person hold the office of President of Republic for more than two terms”.

This is what the law says. It is the law. Much more however, is hidden behind that piece of information: the intention. Why did the people vote for the president to have no more than two terms? This is what Mr Rwagatare, the RPF, President Paul Kagame and his acolytes should be reminding the folks who ignorantly or forcedly are tirelessly calling for tampering with the constitution in order to reinstitute Kagame once or more times again.

To answer, let us remember: Going back into our history from the kingdom time via the first and second republics to the RPF’s regime, we were unlucky to experience leaders who wanted or were forced either by beliefs, entourage or greed, to be in charge until they die. Let me remind Rwagatare that no King could be enthroned in presence of his predecessor. The elder had to die either naturally or killed. The same tradition passed over into republican regimes. Habyarimana felt insecure in presence of Kayibanda. Kagame could not be in power in presence of Habyarimana. In fact, the RPF took up arms alleging Habyarimana amongst other things that he had remained in power for so long, although he was repetitively elected at 99%! Had we respected the Arusha peace accords, Habyarimana would have gained other good two terms. Trust me!

With that in mind, the 2003 constitution intended to avoid similar scenarios. It was considered that an individual is born and dead but a nation remains. Thus the nation can live, prosper and develop tremendously even without that particular individual.  That is why the article 101 intended to encourage leaders to respect the fact that no one is irreplaceable and to dissuade them to hold on power indefinitely because this could generate conflicts, wars and possibly genocides. Another important dream was that from that time on, Rwanda would have an ex president deservedly able to serve as a councilor owed to experience and with the hope to retire peacefully thereafter.

It is now I realize clearly that Kagame never dreamt of initiating good changes to set antecedence that further generations would follow. In fact the same Kagame who was there in 2003 when the constitution was in the making, the same Kagame who claimed that he will not be there as president come 2017, is the same one who thinks a third term is not a bad thing. Somebody say, “Shame on you Mr President”!

For some naïve observers and commentators, I hope Rwagatare is not among, “Kagame does not want it but the people want him”. Democracy is defined as a power of the people, by the people  and for the people. Hence, the people have a powerful capacity which is bestowed upon them especially on the day of elections: the capacity to choose a leader of their interests.  Everyone knows that in a police state like Rwanda the democracy does not exist, and so that capacity is banned not only via elections but also even during brainstorming of ideas to make policies that run the affairs of the nation. We have seen it every day; we saw it in reports that shouted out the RPF-led assassination of freedom of speech, strangulation of independent media and impediment to rights of association.

The capacity to choose leaders is also threatened by the dictatorial micro management groups, armed or not, whose role is to force the people to vote against their will and to rig elections using any form of strategy in favor of the incumbent. But now the RPF wants to show us that last night the people dreamt “well”, woke up and coincidently the government allowed them to speak out: “we want Kagame back”. Funny enough! That kind of games is known to us, thou shall not lie. If Kagame does not step down, the RPF will have wasted a golden opportunity to show that it can do at least one good thing during its lifetime.

  1. The human nature

If Rwagatare were promised a very beautiful gift on a condition that he reaches 200 years alive, he clearly would realize that the promise is untenable. Why? Because we know that in our days, no one lives for two centuries. It is the same for political parties and their leaders.

A political party is born, grows up and dies. When it is born it is too young to deliver, when it grows up it matures and performs well but after some time it gets too old to run the country. At that time, the party cannot offer anything. It starts deteriorating and fails its early and own principles which eventually attracted the people to trust it. Even when it claims to rejuvenate itself, the young minds are overshadowed by old folks who think they have experience, thus they should take the lead indefinitely.

A leader gets too old as well and too tired to keep doing a good job (if he ever did any). That is a natural reality we are faced with. Accepting it does not mean you are not the hero you claim to be or that you are not loved by the people. By the way, it is not a matter of love given the tough and quasi impossible tasks assigned to the leader. If they loved him, they would let him retire and if he loved Rwanda, he would refuse to take an extra term.

In conclusion

The people of Rwanda should revisit the reasons that made them vote the constitution that included the article 101 (assuming they really voted for it). If Kagame does not step down, he will have satisfied his ego but at expense of all economic growth and other things he has been praised for. What if the people stepped in to say “no” to this man? As a matter of fact, they are ready, willing and able to take their destiny in hands. Friends of Rwanda (not of Kagame alone) have already demonstrated their undoubted support to the blowing wind of change.  A bon entendeur, salut!

Chaste Gahunde, BA, Dip Commonwealth of Learning (COL) London, UK

Abaturage bo mu karere ka Gasabo bigaragambije bahangana n’ubutegetsi.

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Abaturage bari barakaye cyane

Kuri uyu wa Kabiri tariki ya 24 Gashyantare 2015 mu Mudugudu wa Muhozi, Akagari ka Kinyaga, Umurenge wa Bumbogo ho mu Karere ka Gasabo nyuma y’ uko ubuyobozi bw’Umudugudu bufatanyije n’inzego z’umutekano (DASSO) basenyeye umuturage, abaturage bagenzi be bagumutse biyemeza guhangana n’ababasenyeye kugeza aho nabo bari bagiye gusenyera Umuyobozi ushinzwe umutekano mu Mudugudu, bashinja ubuyobozi bw’inzego zibanze ruswa ikabaje bigatuma barenganya mugenzi wabo.

Uyu mutegarugori witwa Bamurange Nadia wariraga cyane avuza induru, yadutangarije ko ubwo yari Kimironko akumva baramuhamagaye kuri telefoni ngo naze arebe inzu ye abagize Komite y’Umudugudu bari kuyisenya, ahageze asanga koko bamaze kuyishyira hasi.

Ubwo twahageraga twasanze abaturage benshi mu mihanda bugufi bw’ahari inzu, aho ingabo z’u Rwanda zitabajwe baje guhosha izo mvururu kuko abaturage basaga nk’abariye karugu bahiga Umukuru w’umudugudu, n’uwa Kagali, ari nako bari bamaze kubuzwa gutera amabuye ku nzu y’ushinzwe umutekano muri uwo mudugudu.

Nk’uko ababonye biba twahasanze babidutanagrije, abaturage bamaze kubona iyi nzu isenywe, bavuze ko uyu mudamu ari we wabonewe kuko nkuko babitweretse iyi nzu ikikijwe n’izindi ziri kuzamurwa mu buryo bumwe, we bikavugwa ko yajijijwe ko yanze guha abo bayobozi b’inzego zibanze ruswa igera kubihumbi 400 uteranyije. Ibi bikaba ari byo byahembereye uburakari bw’abaturage.

Ubwo abagize DASSO bahisemo gukuramo akabo karenge, umupolisi wari uhari yashatse kubakangisha imbunda abereka ko ashaka kurasa yakokingaga (to choke), ntibyabakanga bagahitamo kumwegera no kumusingira.

Aba baturage byagaragaraga ko bariye karungu, byabaye ngombwa ko hitabazwa ingabo z’igihugu ndetse n’Umuyobozi w’Umurenge nawe yari amaze kuhagera bagerageza kwegera abaturage, berekeza aho inzu yasenywe, ari nabwo Ubuyobozi bw’Umurenge bwahise bubakoresha inama y’igitaraganya., nyuma y’umwanya munini ariko abaturage banze gutuza.

N’ubwo wasangaga abaturage bose bemeza ko ibyo byose biri guterwa n’umuyobozi mushya w’Umurenge Nduwayezu Alfred (kuko atarahamara igihe kigeze ku mezi abiri) ndetse bemeza ko bifuza ko harebwa ahandi ajyanwa kuyobora, nyuma yo gukorana inama nabo bagaragaje ko hari uko bari bamuzi atameze aho banamwibwiriye ko bamufataga nk’Igikoko.

Aba abaturage bavugaga ko abayobozi b’Imidugudu iyo baje kugira icyo babasaba gukora babawira ngo gira vuba “Umulasita atariyizira” (izina abo bayobozi b’imidugudu bahaye uw’Umurenge) ku buryo ngo abataramumenya bumvaga ateye ubwoba.

Uyu muyobozi yabasabye gushyiraho umunsi bumva bagahura bakaganira kuri ibyo bibazo ariko abanenga cyane ku kibazo cyo kwihorera bashatse kugaragaza, ababwira ko ikibazo cyose bagira bagishyikiriza inzego zibishinzwe, ariko bakirinda uwo muco wo kwihorera.

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Bamurange Nadia yicaye mu itongo arira

Mu kiganiro twagiranye na Bamurange nyiri ugusenyerwa ubwo twasanga arira cyane, yadutanagarije ko ibi byabanjirijwe n’umuyobozi w’Akagari wamuhamagaye akamubwira ngo bahurire muri Gare ya Kimironko baganire ku by’inzu ye yubatse nta byangombwa afite.

Bamurange ngo yahuye n’uyu Muyobozi ngo nyuma amusaba ko yaba amushakiye amafaranga ya ruswa ibihumbi 50 ariko undi yanga kuyamuha amubwira ko kubera ibikorwa byo kubaka ntayo yabona, akemeza ko hafi ya buri munsi yajyaga amuhamagara agamije kumwaka iyo ruswa, nkuko yabyerekanaga muri telefoni ye.

Umuyobozi w’Umurenge wa Bumbogo, Nduwayezu Alfred yadutangarije ko kubera ikibazo cy’uburyo Umujyi uri gukura kandi ari ahantu usanga hakiboneka ibibanza bya make, hari kuboneka ibibazo by’abahaza benshi bashaka gutanguranwa batura mu buryo butemewe n’amategeko nabo bagafatirana babakumira kugira ngo hubahirizwe igishushanyo- mbonera, ari byo bikurura ibi bibazo.

Kuwa Kane w’icyumweru gishize, ngo nibwo baje baramusenyera ariko bahirika uruhande rumwe rw’inzu, ariko nyuma nawe arongera araruzamura, aribwo ubu bongeraga kuyihirika yose.

Mu gihe Bamurange yiyemerera ko yubatse iyi nzu abizi ko nta byangombwa afite kubera amafaranga ngo yacibwaga agasanga atayafite, ahuza n’abaturanyi be bose bemeza ko hari izindi nzu ndetse zirimo n’izo begeranye bubakiye rimwe kandi nazo zidafite ibyangombwa ariko zo abamusenyeye bakababirinda kuzirebaho.

Kuba Ubuyobozi bw’Imidugudu bwaba buri mu bagira uruhare muri iki gikorwa byagarutsweho n’impande zose aho abaturage bagaragaza ko bakwa ruswa bakemererwa kubaka utayitanze ntiyemererwe. Aha byashimangiwe n’umuyobozi w’Umurenge wagaragaje ko bidashoboka ko inzu yubakwa ikarenda yuzura igasakarwa, igakingwa Umuyobozi w’Umudugudu atabizi.

Bamurange Nadia wasenyewe iyi nzu afite abana babiri n’umugabo, ubusanzwe akaba akodesha mu Murenge wa Kimironko. Inzu ye yasenywe yari imaze gusakarwa no gukingwa, ikaba yari ifite ibyumba bitatu na salo.

Urugi rumwe ndetse n’amabati 36 yari ayisakaye, nyuma yo kuyisenya abakoze iki gikorwa bahise babipakira imodoka babijyana ku Murenge.

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Inzu yose bayishyize hasi
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Amarira yari yose, Bamurange avuga ko yazize kwanga gutanga ruswa
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Umuyobozi w’Umurenge wa Bumbogo mu nama yo guhosha abaturage
Inkuru dukesha Makuruki.com 24/02/2015