Ikibazo cya Kiga-Nduga: Dukande twomora

imbumda

Muri iyi minsi, nyuma y’aho hatangarijwe “Ikoraniro rya mbere ryo kuzirikana abahitanywe na Coup d’Etat yo kuwa 5 Nyakanga 1973 mu Rwanda”, haragarukwa cyane ku kibazo cya Kiga na Nduga cyabyaye intandaro, cyangwa cyavutse kuri ayo mateka ababaje. Ku ruhande rumwe, birakwiye kandi igihe cyari kigeze. Byaba akaga gutekereza ejo hazaza h’u Rwanda twirengagije ko kugira uburenganzira bungana ari imwe mu misingi y’amahoro arambye mu gihugu icyo ari cyo cyose. Muri urwo rwego, ni byiza kuba abazize jenoside bibukwa buri mwaka. Byabaye byiza kurushaho, uyu mwaka, ubwo amashyaka umuntu yakwita Nouvelle Génération yateraga intambwe yo gusabira abazize ubundi bwicanyi, cyane cyane bwakozwe na FPR, bari barashyizwe mu kato. Byongeye kuba byiza kwibuka aba banyarwanda bo muri 1973, na bo ni abacu. Ku rundi ruhande ariko, hatabayemo gushishoza, ibi bikorwa binyuranye byo kwibuka bishobora kugarukira ku marangamutima no guhagama mu mateka, hakabura intambwe igana imbere, ari yo musaruro nyakuri mu mateka no muri politiki.

1. Ihame ryo kwa muganga: kirazira kubaga umurwayi udashobora kumwomora.

Bijya bibaho ko umurwayi agana kwa muganga afite uburwayi busaba kubagwa (intervention chirurgicale). Biratungurana iyo kwa muganga bateye utwatsi ibyo kumubaga, kandi nyamara na bo badahakana ko byamubera umuti. Ibi biba nk’iyo bamusanganye umuvuduko w’amaraso ukabije (hypertension) bagatinya ko yagwa ku iseta, iyo afite amaraso make (anémie) cyangwa afite indi ndwara ituma amaraso ye atavura (nka diabète) bikaba byagorana kuvura ibikomere. Iyo habonetse imwe muri izo mpamvu, ibyo kumubaga barabizibukira, kuko biba bishobora kumuteza ikibazo kirenze icyo yari asanganwe. No mu mateka y’ibihugu ni kimwe. Gusubira mu mateka, cyane cyane ababaje, ni nko kubaga umurwayi. Ubikora, iyo ashaka kubaka, agomba guteganya n’uburyo azomora ibikomere nyuma yo kubaga umurwayi. Iyo ibi bidakozwe, umurwayi aba yongerewe “amahirwe yo gupfa”. Hejuru yo kuba ashobora kwicwa n’uburwayi, haba hiyongeyeho ko anashobora kwicwa n’ubuvuzi. Urugero ni ibyo kwibuka mu Rwanda. Kimwe mu byo abatari bake tunenga FPR, ni uko ibyo kwibuka abazize jenoside bikorwa nk’ubuvuzi butagamije gukiza indwara, ahubwo bugamije kuyikomeza no kuyongera.

2. Ihame ryo mu mateka: iyo uhanganye n’umuntu, utitonze, amaherezo urangiza mwarabaye mahwi.

Mu mibanire y’abantu, hari ibitangaza. Ubushakashatsi bwerekana ko iyo umuntu afite uwo bahanganye, muri uko kugenda baterana intobo n’amagambo, ifoto ye igenda imucengera buhoro buhoro atabizi, akazakanguka barabaye mahwi. Reka ntange urugero kuri Israheli. Icyo aba “nazi” bahemukiyeho abayahudi, si ukuba gusa barabishe mu ntambara ya kabiri y’isi yose. Icyabiherekeje kandi na cyo kibabaje, ni uko ya mikorere y’abanazi yo kwica nta mpuhwe inzirakarengane, yacengeye abayahudi bamwe, akaba ari yo uyu munsi barimo gukoresha ku banyapalestina. Iyo ubonye umuyobozi wa Israheli asobanura ku matereviziyo, nta soni, ko umutekano wayo ubaha uburenganzira bwo gutera bombe ahabonetse hose, zikarimbura abana amajana mu kwezi, ubona ko n’ubwo “abanazi” bapfuye, ariko “ubunazi” nk’imyumvire n’imikorere y’ubugome ntaho bwagiye.

N’ibi by’iwacu ni kimwe. Muri iyi myaka 20 ishize abantu bahanganye na FPR, tutitonze ushobora gusanga hari byinshi tuyinenga, nyamara kubera uko guhora twitsiritana na yo mu mpaka, tukagenda twandura tutabizi. Hari byinshi tuyinenga bizatinda bikubaka indiri mu bayinenga nyirizina. Kimwe muri byo, ni umuco wo kubaga ibibyimba udatekereza ku muti n’icyomoro. Tudashishoje, n’aya mateka yo kwibuka ni ko yarangira. Ugasanga, nk’uko FPR ibigenza, bihindutse umuti wica kurusha uburwayi. Ubwabyo birakwiye. Ikibazo gishobora kuvuka mu cyerekezo tubiha.

3. Kuvangura ibintu ni umusingi ukwiye.

Icya mbere dukwiye kugarukaho iyo hazamuwe icyitwa ikibazo ngo cya Kiga na Nduga, ni ukuvangura ibintu mu nzira eshatu, twumvikanisha iyo Kiga n’iyo Nduga izo ari zo.

Mu nzira ya mbere, birakwiye gusobanura Kiga na Nduga nk’imiterere y’ubutaka. Ku basoma Bibiliya, baribuka inkuru ya Bikira Mariya ajya gusura mubyara we Elizabeti (Lk 1,39). Bibiliya Ntagatifu y’abagatolika ivuga ko yagiye kumusura “mu misozi miremire”, n’aho bibiliya zimwe z’abaporoso zikavuga ko yagiye kumusura mu “Nkigacyangwa mu Rukiga”. Byombi ni byo. Mu kinyarwanda, Inkiga cyangwa Urukiga bivuga akarere k’imisozi miremire. Ni na yo mpamvu buri karere kagira inkiga zako. Ikinyuranyo cy’Urukiga ni amayaga, ni ukuvuga agace k’umurambi. Na za Gikongoro imisozi miremire bayita mu Nkiga. Za Gitarama umusozi wa Ndiza bawita mu Nkiga.

Mu nzira ya kabiri, Urukiga na Nduga ni uturere tuzwi mu mateka y’u Rwanda. Rukiga ni akarere k’ubuyobozi (disctrict) kabarizwaga hagati ya Byumba, Ngarama, Gabiro na Kinihira. Naho Nduga ho hari Gitarama yegereye mu Marangara. Ufatiye aha, wavuga ko gufata ibibazo byavutse hagati ya Repubulika ya mbere n’iya kabiri ukabyita Nduga na Kiga ari ugupapira. Mu nzira ya mbere, Inkiga ziri hose ahari imisozi miremire. Na Gitarama, ahegereye umusozi wa Ndiza bahita mu Nkiga. Mu nzira ya kabiri, urabona ko ibibazo hagati ya repubulika zombi bidakwiye kwitwa Kiga na Nduga. Ntabo tuzi bo muri repubulika ya kabiri bavukaga ahahoze hitwa Rukiga. Ndetse n’abo mu ya mbere bavukaga ahitwa Nduga babarirwa ku ntoki z’ikiganza kimwe.

Mu nzira ya gatatu ariko, tugarukiye aha, twaba twanduye ya ndwara ya FPR yo kuvuga ngo nta kibazo gihari, mu gihe n’uruhinja rubona ko gihari koko. Turetse inyito ya Kiga na Nduga bahaye iki kibazo mu kwibeshya cyangwa ku zindi nyungu, ikibazo cy’ivangura rishingiye ku duce tunyuranye tw’u Rwanda cyabaye hagati ya repubulika ya mbere n’iya kabiri gikwiye kwitabwaho. Ibiri amambu, tugiye kwerekana indi nkomoko yacyo abantu batajya bitaho.

4. Imiterere y’aho abantu bakomoka (facteur géographique) igira ingaruka ku myumvire yabo ya politiki.

Usesenguye amateka y’isi, usanga abo mu majyepfo n’abo mu majyaruguru batagira imyumvire imwe ya politiki. Ibi kandi si umwihariko w’u Rwanda.

Tugiye mu mateka ya kera, natanga urugero rwa Israheli. Kuva mu bihe bya kera, abo mu majyaruguru (Galileya na Samariya) n’abo mu majyepfo (Yudeya) bamye badahuza mu myumvire ya politiki. Mu Byakozwe n’Intumwa 5,36-39, umuhanga Gamaliyeli avuga mu ncamake imyivumbagatanyo ya Politiki yahungabanyije Israheli mu gihe cya Yezu. Igitangaje ni uko izo mpinduramatwara zose zabaga zirangajwe imbere n’abo mu majyaruguru (Tewudasi, Yuda w’umunyagalileya, Yezu, twakongeraho na Yohani Batista). Iki ni icyitegererezo ko amajyaruguru n’amajyepfo batahuzaga mu bya politiki.

Tugiye mu mateka y’ubu, twafata urugero ku Burayi. Mu byegeranyo byose bivuga ku bipimo by’intambwe ya demokarasi, ibihugu byo mu majyaruguru (Damenark, Norvège, Finlande, Swède) biza iteka imbere y’ibigana mu majyepfo (Portugal, Espagne, France, Italie). Abahanga berekana ko bifite igisobanuro mu miterere y’akarere (facteur géographique). Ndetse ugereranije isi yose, ubona ko demokarasi no kubahiriza uburenganzira bwa muntu bigenda bigira ingufu uko werekeza mu majyaruguru y’isi, wagana mu majyepfo (ahari na Afurika) bikazamba.

N’iwacu, kuba abantu banyuranya muri politiki biturutse ku turere bavukamo, ntibitangaje kandi si iby’ubu. Duhereye mu mateka ya kure, Umwanditsi Jan Vansina, mu gitabo cye (Le Rwanda Ancien), yerekana icyo kinyuranyo ku ipaji ya 229. Uko abisesengura, ahagana muri 1897, ubutegetsi bw’umwami bwari bugeramiwe muri rusange mu majyaruguru, mu gihe mu majyepfo ho bwari bugikanyakanya. Twanibutsa ko mu bice by’amajyaruguru hari henshi ubuhake butabarizwaga. Ndetse uriya muhanga yerekana uburyo umwaduko w’abakoroni wahaye agahenge ubwami, ukabuha ijambo muri utwo duce tw’amajyaruguru, aho ubundi bwari bugeramiwe n’imyivumbagatanyo.

Munyumve nesa, sinshaka guhamya ko abo mu majyaruguru baba ari aba “démocrates” kurusha abo mu majyepfo, ubushakashatsi ntibubinyemerera, cyakoze kuba hari isano hagati y’aho abantu bakomoka n’imyumvire yabo ya politiki, byo ni ukuri. No kuba abanyarwanda bagira imyumvire inyuranye bitewe n’igice cy’u Rwanda bakomokamo, nta gitangaje kirimo ahubwo ni ubukungu. Ubundi muri politiki, kuba hari imyumvire inyuranye si ikibazo. Ikibazo kivuka iyo hatabonetse inzira zo kuyiha uruhare mu kubaka igihugu bose bahuriyeho. Iki ni cyo kibazo cy’ukuri.

5. Ikibazo cy’ukuri: umukino utagira amategeko no gusimburana mu kibuga.

Kunyuranya muri politiki si umwihariko w’abanyarwanda. Ndetse ahubwo, politiki ni cyo ibereyeho. Ni urubuga rwo guhurizamo amakipe anyuranye, akina binyuranye, ariko hagamijwe guteza umukino imbere. Igituma ahandi umukino wa politiki ushoboka kandi ugakorwa mu mudendezo (ari byo twita demokarasi), si uko batanyuranyije mu myumvire, ahubwo ni uko bashyizeho amategeko agenga umukino, yubashywe na bose, ari yo bita mu gifaransa “les institutions”. Dukoresheje iyo shusho y’umupira w’amaguru, inzego cyangwa “institutions” ni nk’amategeko agenga umukino. Buri wese akaba azi ibyemewe n’ibidakorwa, ibigawa n’ibishimwa; hakaba abashinzwe gukina (amashyaka anyuranye) n’abashinzwe gusifura (ubutabera bwigenga); “championat” ari yo mandat ikagira igihe itangirira n’igihe irangirira; utsinzwe akamenya igihe “championat” y’ubutaha izatangirira, akaba atoza ikipe ye; utsinze na we ntiyirare, akamenya ko ubutaha arangaye bamutsinda mpaga; buri wese akamenya imyitwarire ihanishwa ikarita y’umuhondo cyangwa umutuku; hakamenyekana uko abakinnyi basimburana mu kibuga n’ibindi.

Ikibazo cy’ukuri mu Rwanda si abakinnyi banyuranye mu myumvire n’imikinire. Ni uko umukino wa politiki mu Rwanda waranzwe no kutagira amategeko. Iyo nta mategeko, n’ubwo waba umupira w’amaguru, bibyara ingorane zikomeye. Urase umupira, araha akaguru ka mugenzi we; ukiniwe nabi agatora amabuye; uteye igicamurundi ntagire inkurikizi; ushatse agacishamo agakinisha n’amaboko; uhawe ikarita y’umutuku akarahira ko aho gusohoka mu kibuga yasiga agitwitse; uwatsinzwe mu cyiciro cya mbere (première division) agomba kumanuka mu cya kabiri, agatora umuheto akemeza bose ko ari we watwaye igikombe cya championat… ngayo ng’uko. Ushaka kumva ingorane za politiki y’u Rwanda, nafate icyo kigereranyo cy’umupira w’amaguru agikoreshe ku bibazo bya politiki n’imiyoborere.

Iyicwa ry’abanyapolitiki bo muri repubulika ya mbere waryumva muri ubu buryo.Kubibuka ni byiza, ariko igikuru ni uko byaba umwanya wo kureba icyakorwa ngo uyu mukino wa politiki ugire amategeko azwi, yemeranijweho, kandi yubashywe na bose. Niba bitabaye, ziracyapfa Bitanihira! Ikibazo nyakuri ni ukwibaza impamvu iteka impinduka z’ubutegetsi ziherekezwa n’amaraso. Yaramenetse hagati y’ubwami na repubukila ya mbere, arameneka hagati ya repubulika ya mbere n’iya kabiri, arameneka hagati y’iya kabiri n’ubutegetsi bwa FPR…….kuzageza ryari? Intambwe ya mbere ni uko abantu batakwinjira muri izi mpaka gusa nk’abanyamateka, ahubwo bakwiye kuzinjiramo nk’abanyapolitiki.

6.Itandukaniro hagati yo gucukumbura amateka no gukora politiki.

Ucukumbura amateka aba agamije kumva ibyabaye, ukora politiki aba agamije kurema (déterminer) ibizaba. Impungenge mfite ni uko impaka nyinshi no gucukumbura birimo bikorwa ku kibazo cy’abanyapolitiki bo muri repubulika ya mbere bishwe, zishobora kuzuramo amateka, zikaburamo politiki. Twaba duhombye. Bibaye, zaba zifite amahirwe menshi yo gusiga ibintu aho zabisanze, niba zitabisubije inyuma. Abateguye ibikorwa byo kubibuka basobanura ikigamijwe muri aya amagambo:

Nyuma y’imyaka 41 y’intimba, nta n’uburenganzira na mba bwo kuyaga cyangwa kuyagirwa twe basize inyuma twigeze tugira, igihe kirageze, ku babishoboye, ngo baruhuke ingoyi y’ibikomere bikibashegesha umutima. Ni n’umwanya wo kwifatanya n’inshuti tugasangira ishavu, akababaro no kwizera, tukanagaruka ku kitwibutsa abacu. Ni umwanya kandi utagira uko usa wo gushimira ababasimbuye mu kutubera ababyeyi, kimwe n’abandi bose batugaragarije ko bifatanyije natwe muri ayo makuba”.

Ni byiza, nk’imiryango yabuze ababo, igitekerezo cyabo ni icyo gushyigikirwa, ndetse njye nzajya kubafata mu mugongo. Kubasaba ibirenze ibi, byaba ari ubushotoranyi. Gusa na none, birakwiye ko abakora politiki bo batera indi ntambwe. Igikorwa nk’iki aba ari umwanya wo guteza imbere imyumvire n’imikorere ya politiki. Dore nk’ubu abana bakomoka kuri ziriya ntwari za demokarasi bari bakwiye kugira uruhare muri politiki, urumuri rwa demokarasi rwacanywe n’abababyara, ntiruzimirire ku barwonse mu mashereka, bakarutora ku byahi. Ariko se byaba bimaze iki kubatumira mu kibuga, aho uzabavuna amaguru atazahabwa n’ikarita y’umuhondo? Ese wababwira ngo nimuze muri politiki namwe muzahasige ubuzima nka ba so na sogokuru? Abanyapolitiki, cyane cyane ababyiruka, ba “basore bashaje”, iyi ni imwe mu mpinduka bashobora kuzana. Kurwanira ko politiki nyarwanda yareka kuba irimbi ry’intwari n’ijabiro ry’ibigwari. Politiki si ubushakahatsi ku byahise gusa, ni no kurema ibizaza. Itandukaniro hagati y’umunyapolitiki na rubanda rusanzwe, ni uko mu gihe rubanda twe dutegereza ibizaza tukazareba n’uko tubyitwaramo, umunyapolitiki we ari wa wundi uharanira ko byazagenda uko abishaka. Kandi birashoboka.

Hari uwabyumva akagira ati noneho abanyapolitiki ubahinduye imana. Oya, ariko dufashe urugero buri wese yakumva. Reba Kagame na FPR ye. Wabakunda, utabakunda, kwemera ko hari ibyo bashoboye byananiye abandi ni ukugira ubudakemwa mu bwenge (honnêteté intellectuelle). Kagame na FPR bashoboraga gutegereza uko ingoma ya Habyarimana izarangira, ariko nk’abanyapolitiki, bahisemo gutegura no kurema (déterminer) uko bazayirangiza. Bategura kwica Habyarimana banabigeraho. Muri uwo mugambi wo kurema ibiri imbere, banateguye uko “opposition” y’imbere mu gihugu izabafasha, barangiza bakayirimburana n’imizi. Na byo byageze aho birashyika. Ndetse banateguye uburyo iyo “opposition” bayibibamo urubori ruzatuma icyo gisekuru kitongera kwegura umutwe, babacamo ibice. Bariherereye, birenza ba Gatabazi na Gapyisi, baricecekera, bagenzi babo bajya ku maradiyo babishinja Habyarimana.

Ikigaragara ni uko “opposition” y’imbere yakoraga nka rubanda, yategerezaga ibiba, ikareba uko yabyitwaramo. Yarakurikiraga, ntiyateguraga. Nta mugambi wa politiki yagiraga. Naho FPR yo yarabiteguraga ikanabirema, ari cyo mu by’ukuri cyitwa gukora politiki. Uko guhuzagurika kwa “opposition” kwatumye abari bafatanyije no mu mashyaka amwe icyo gihe, ubu ntawe usuhuzanya n’undi. Siniriwe nshyiraho amazina. FPR yaboneyeho akanya irabacanga nk’ucanga amakarita, ku buryo n’abari basangwanywe amasano ya hafi mu miryango, ubu aho umwe anyuze undi ahanyuza umuriro. Aha hanadufasha kumva impamvu muri iyi myaka 20 ishize, abantu bari barakoranye, byabananiye kwiyegeranya ngo bareme opposition ifite imbaraga zo guhangana na FPR. Aha wanahashingira wumva icyo mpora nsubiramo ko politiki ya opposition izatangizwa n’abasore n’inkumi bazamutse (bashaje).

Ntihagire ubisimbukiraho ngo akeke ko mpamagarira abanyapolitiki bazamutse gukora politiki ndimburambaga nk’iya FPR. Oya rwose ntibikabe. Na FPR ntibyayihiriye, dore biyigejeje aharindimuka. Gusa FPR ni urugero rw’icyo bita gukora politiki, ufite icyerekezo, ufite umugambi. Icyo nshaka kwerekana ni uko kuba FPR yarabishoboye mu bibi, ari ikimenyetso cy’uko abantu banabishobora mu byiza. Gusa ntihagire uwibeshya ko bigerwaho mu munsi umwe. Na FPR byayitwaye hafi imyaka 30. Uwashaka kugira aho agera, niyicare yubake icyerekezo atarambirwa.

Umusozo: mwana wanjye uzabe ingenzi, uzase nanjye urenzeho unsumbe ndabigusabye.

Banyapolitiki murimo muzamuka, nimwe mbwira. Ndabandikiye kuko nemera ko ari mwe muzazahura politiki ya opposition murema inzira nshyashya. Ndabandikiye kuko ibihe byahindutse, bikaba bisaba imikorere mishya. Ndabandikiye kuko ababyeyi banyu cyangwa bakuru banyu hari henshi banyereye, hari byinshi bagonganiyemo imanga byateye ikaba yarababujije kwisuganya ngo politiki y’u Rwanda yubure umutwe. Ndabandikiye kuko mutari ibitangaza kubarusha. Gusa bashobora kubabera icyitegererezo. Aho batsitaye mwizibukire, aho banyereye musimbuke cyangwa mwambare “godiyo”, aho bakoze neza mukomerezeho. Nibataba ababyeyi gito cyangwa abakuru shyari, bazababwira nka Rugamba bati “mwana wanjye uzabe ingenzi, uzase nanjye urenzeho unsumbe, ndabigusabye”.Nyamara birakwiye gushishoza aho mukwiye gusa n’aho mukeneye kubarenga. Ngiyi intangiro ya politiki: kudategereza ibizaza, ahubwo tugaharanira kubihanga.

 

Edmond MUNYANGAJU

 

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2 comments

  1. IBI NUKURI KOSE KBSA, KANDI INAMA ZANYU NDAZIKUNZE. TUREBE ICYO DUPFANA KURUTA ICYO DUPFA. NDETSE AMATEKA KUYAMENYA NINGENZI, MURAKOZE

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