AMAMATEKA y’amajyambere y’u Rwanda n’ababigizemo uruhare(Igice cya 2 na ): Abakoloni bakomye imbarutso.

Parution: Monday 8 September 2014, 22:28
Par:Jean de Dieu Musemakweli

Habaho ibemenyetso 3  byerekana aho amajyambere abereye ikiremwamuntu (Indices du développement humain) ageze mu gihugu cyangwa mu karere aka n’aka :

1. Imyaka abantu bamara muri rusange mbere yo gupfa (espérance de vie à la naissance),

2.Ubumenyi (niveau d’éducation)

3.N”imibereho (niveau de vie).

Urebye rero imigendekere y’ibyo bimenyetso mu Rwanda, uherako ubona ko Abakoloni bakomye imbarutso y’amajyambere mu Rwanda. Abazungu baduka mu Rwanda mu nyuma y’umwaka w’1850, ubuzima bw’umunyarwandakazi bwamaraga muri rusange imyaka 40, naho ubw’umunyarwanda bukamara 37. Nk’uko turi bubibone mu kanya, byaterwaga n’impamvu nyinshi, iy’ingenzi ikaba ari uko ubuvuzi bw’indwara z’abana ndetse n’iz’abantu bakuru bwari butaratera imbere. None se kubona na Yuhi Musinga (1896-1931) ubwe n’ubwo yari umwami yari afite igisebe kidakira ku kuguru !

Ku birebana n’ubumenyi, amashuri uko tuyazi ubu n’ubumenyi bwose atanga ntayabagaho .  Yego hari amatorero, hakaba n’abantu bafataga mu mutwe ingengabitekerezo n’ibisigo by’ibwami, ariko Abanyarwanda ntibari bazi gusoma no kwandika. Ku birebana no kubara, barageragezaga ariko nanone iyo mibare yabo ntibabe bayandika. Barihanganaga bakabara kugeza ku gihumbi ; ariko guhera ku bihumbi 10 bagatangira kugenekereza.

Dore uko imibare yabo itanditse yitwaga :

1 = limwe,

10 = icumi,

100 = ijana,

1 000 = igihumbi,

10 000 = agakwavu,

100 000 = urukwavu,

1 000 000 = agahumbagiza ,

10 000 000 = agapyisi,

100 000 000 = impyisi ,

1 000 000 000 = Igihumbagiza,

10 000 000 000 = akazovu,

100 000 000 000 = inzovu.

(Byanditswe na Bonaventure K Mureme, Dénombrement et adjectifs numéraux cardinaux rwandais, in www.sciencespolitiquesrwandaises.fr, le 27 février 2014, consulté le 04 septembre 2014).

Imibereho myiza irangwa n’ibintu 4 by’ingenzi n’ibindi byinshi by’ingirakamaro. Iby’ingenzi ni : kurya neza, gutura heza, kwambara neza, kwivuza.  Ibindi by’ingirakamaro ni : ukuzigama (épargne), ubushobozi bwo kurihira abana amashuri, itumanaho (kubasha kugera aho wifuza kujya bitakugoye cyangwa ukoherezayo ubutumwa ku buryo bwihuse).

A. Kurya neza. Mu Rwanda rwa mbere w’umwaduko w’Abazungu hahoraga inzara n’amapfa kubera impamvu 3 z’ingenzi :

a) kutagira ikoranabuhanga mu buhinzi, mu bworozi ndetse no mu guteka ;

b) Intambara z’urudaca z’abami b’Abanyiginya ;

c) Ingoma mbi ya gihake. (Ubutaha, mbere yo gukomeza aya “mateka y’amajyambere y’u Rwanda n’ababigizemo uruhare”, tuzabagezaho inyandiko yerekerana isano  yari  hagati y’ingoma mbi ya gihake n’inzara n’amapfa byahoraga mu Rwanda).

B. Gutura heza. Ntabwo cyari igitangaza kumva ngo impyisi ijyanye umuntu imuvanye iwe cyangwa iwabo mu nzu. Ni uko izo nzu zabaga ari “nyakatsi”, zubakishije ibyatsi kuva hasi kugera hejuru kabone n’iz’umwami cyangwa iz’abatware n’ibindi byegera bye. Inzu z’ibiti bashyiraho imbariro, bagahomesha urwondo, bagasakaza ibihunda cyangwa ubwatsi zaje nyuma.

C. Kwambara neza. Imyambaro yabaga ikoze mu mpu, mu bivuvu by’ibiti cyane cyane icy’umuvumu,  mu bihunda by’insina cyangwa ibibabi by’ibihingwa bimwe na bimwe bigira ibibabi binini. Byari bikomeye kubona umwambaro utwikiriye umubiri wose. N’iyo umunyarwanda yitwaga ko yambaye, yaba umwana, umusore, inkumi, umugabo cyangwa umugore,  igice kinini cy’umubiri we cyabaga kibereye aho, ari umutumbuze. Ushaka kubyibonera asome inyandiko ya Gaspard Musabyimana yitwa L’habillement au Rwanda ancien (Uko bambaraga mu Rwanda rwo hambere) yatangaje le 25 Werurwe 2008 ku rubuga www.musabyimana.be. Mu gutunganya iyo nyandiko, yifashishije igitabo cya Jan-B Cypers cyitwa L’habillement du Rwanda ancien, Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, 2004. Amafoto ari muri iyo nyandiko nayo yavuye muri icyo gitabo.

Dore imwe gusa muri iyo myambaro :

1. Uruyonga rwari umwambaro ugizwe n’indodo z’ibivuvu by’igiti cy’umuvumu.

2. Ibihunda by’insina

3.Umwitero wari umwenda ukoze mu ruhu rw’inyamaswa cyangwa mu bivuvu by’umuko. Wafatiraga ku rutugu, ugatwikira ahanini umugongo.

4. Umukenyero wari umwambaro w’abategarugori wakenyererwaga mu mankinya, ugatwikira amaguru.

5. Ishabure yari umwambaro w’abakobwa bakiri bato, ariko n’abagabo barawambaraga. Bawukenyereraga mu mankinya, ukagira incunda zimanuka kugera ku tugombambari.

6. Ikinyita cyari akagutiya kagufi gakozwe mu ruhu rw’inka cyangwa rw’ihene, kandi ukarebye akabona aho umutwe n’umurizo w’iryo tungo wari uherereye.  Mu by’ukuri kari ako gukingiriza gusa imbere (igitsina) z’ukambaye. Abakobwa, abasore n’abagabo barakambaraga, ariko umukobwa umaze gushinga urugo ntiyongeraga kukikoza.

D. Ibindi : Umwami, ibikomangoma, abatware n’abagore babo bahekwaga mu ngobyi. Ingendo zose zakorwaga ku maguru. Nta mihanda, nta farasi, nta ndogobe cyangwa ikindikindi. Kubera iyo mpamvu, ubuhahirane hagati y’uturere tutegeranye bwabaga buruhanije. Ubuvuzi bwa Gihanga bwabagaho, ariko bwari bufite aho bugarukira, kandi hatari kure cyane. Ni yo mpamvu muri rusange Abanyarwanda batarambaga.

Nk’uko twabibasezeranije rero, ubutaha tuzabagezaho inyandiko yerekana ko ubuhake ari bwo bwatumaga mu Rwanda hahora amapfa n’inzara, hanyuma tuzakomeze tureba ukuntu Abadage, ari bo babaye Abakoloni bambere b’u Rwanda, bakomye imbarutso y’amajyambere muri icyo gihugu.

Jean de Dieu Musemakweli

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