“Nyuma y’imyaka 20, Jenoside yabaye Nzamwitakuze,…Abarokotse jenoside babaye Imbyeyi idateka.” Edmond Munyangaju

IMYAKA 20 NYUMA YA JENOSIDE: TWARI TWIZEYE KO…!

Par:Edmond Munyangaju

Tariki ya 7 mata, abanyarwanda twibutse ku nshuro ya 20 jenoside yaduhekuye. Iki gihe ni umwanya mwiza wo gusubiza amaso inyuma tukamenya aho tuvuye n’aho tugeze, bikaba byanadushushanyiriza aho tugana. Mbere ariko yo gufatanya uyu umwitozo utoroshye, tubanje gufata mu mugongo uwo ari we wese wabuze abe muri jenoside no mu bundi bwicanyi butiswe jenoside. Muri iyi myaka 20 duteye umugongo, hari byinshi twari twizeye ko bijya ahagaragara, none turacyategereje ko izuba ribirasiraho. Hari n’ibindi twibwiraga ko umwijima wabipfukiranye burundu, none biragaragara ko utazatsinda urumuri. Reka tubirebere hamwe.

1. Jenoside yabaye Nzamwitakuze.

Mu kinyarwanda iyo umubyeyi yabyaraga apfusha, hari ubwo yageragaho umwana akamwita Nzamwitakuze. Ni nko kuvuga ngo iri zina ni iry’agateganyo, nakura nzamushakira irya burundu. Jenoside na yo yabaye nzamwitakuze. Loni ari na yo ifite inshingano zo kwemeza niba ubwicanyi ari jenoside, yatangiye iyita jenoside y’abanyarwanda. Byasobanuraga ko ari abayikorewe n’abayikoze bose ari abanyarwanda. Ni na byo koko, kuko nka jenoside y’abayahudi yakozwe n’abanyaburayi. Mu Rwanda ho ubutegetsi bwa FPR bwahisemo kuyihindura nzamwitakuze. Yabanje kwitwa itsembabwoko n’itsembatsemba, nyuma ihinduka itsembabwoko, irakomeza yitwa jenoside y’abatutsi, none ubu ni jenoside yakorewe abatutsi. Uwakwibeshya ni uwakwibwira ko noneho iretse kuba nzamwitakuze, ko urutonde rw’amazina rugiyeho akadomo. Urebye intambwe ya “ndi umunyarwanda” ushobora kwibaza niba tutazakanguka tugasanga bayise “jenoside yakozwe n’abahutu”, nibikomeza nk’uko Kagame yabitangaje muri iki cyumweru izaba “Jenoside yakozwe n’abahutu bafatanyije n’abafaransa”, nyuma ishobora kuba “jenoside yakozwe n’abahutu bafatanyije n’abafaransa na Kiliziya Gatolika ”, cyangwa “jenoside yakozwe n’interahamwe n’abafaransa”...inzira ya nzamwitakuze iracyari ndende.

2. Umubare w’abishwe n’abarokotse wabaye Vuguziga.

Mu kinyarwanda kwita umwana Vuguziga byashushanyaga ubushake bwo kuvuga ukuri ugera, ngo hatagira inyungu zawe zihangirikira, iteka ukagira icyo usiga inyuma. Dore bijya gutangira ubutegetsi bwa FPR bwatanze imibare muri Loni ko ngo jenoside yahitanye abantu 800.000. Aba barimo abatutsi n’abandi banyarwanda. FPR ku mpamvu izi yonyine yubakishije urwibutso hafi muri buri kagari n’imibare y’abahashyinguwe irandikwa. Byaje kuba urujijo kuko uteranyije iyo mibare usanga jenoside yarahitanye abasaga miliyoni enye. Nibwo hadutse Gacaca yaje yanzikiye gucukumbura, ihereye ku mibare yo kuri buri musozi. Hashize imyaka 2 irangiye. Nyamara ikibazo cy’umubare w’abahitanywe na jenoside n’abarokotse cyakomeje kuba Vuguziga. Umwanzuro wabaye gusiba imibare yanditse ku nzibutso, na none ku mpamvu zizwi na FPR n’abayo! Hagati aho imvaburayi Dogiteri Senateri Umwanditsi n’Umusesenguzi Bizimana Jean Damascène, mu kwezi gushize yashyize ahagaragara igitabo gikubiyemo ubushakashatsi rutsindangogo. Cyitwa “Inzira ya Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu Rwanda”. Muri make ngo jenoside yahitanye abatutsi 1.364.020. (avec précision!). Igitangaje ni ukuntu Gacaca yakusanyije amakuru yaruciye ikarumira, none Bizimana aravumbuye. Ibi na byo utareba kure yagira ngo birarangiye. Nategereze ejo hazaza hahishe ibindi. Bizimana ni umusogongero, umusomyo nturaza.

3. Jenoside y’Imburagihe.

Ku bwa Loni, jenoside yatangiye tariki 1/1/ 1994. Icyemezo gishyiraho TPIR cyemeza ko ibyaha bizakurikiranwa ari ibyakozwe guhera kuri iyo tariki. Aha ni ho bamwe bahera bakibwira ko Loni yemeje ko ihanurwa ry’indege ya Habyarimana atari yo ntangiriro ya jenoside. Kubyumva gutya byaba ari ukwihuta mu magambo. Ahubwo kuba ihanurwa ry’indege ari yo nsiriri ya jenoside, ni cyo gisobanura impamvu Loni yafashe itariki ya 1 mutarama 1994. Yari ifite amakuru rubanda rwa giseseka tutari tuzi nk’uko nyuma byaje kugaragara. Aho umucamanza w’umufaransa Jean Louis Bourguière asohoreye raporo ye, yerekanye ko imyiteguro yo guhanura indege ya Habyarimana yakozwe hagati ya mutarama na mata 1994. Iyi rero ni imwe mu mpamvu zateye Loni gufatira intangiro ya jenoside ku itariki ya 1 mutarama 1994, kugira ngo n’ibikorwa bya FPR byaje kubyara ihanurwa ry’indege ari yo yabaye imbarutso bijye mu rutonde rw’ibigomba gukurikiranwa.

Ibya FPR kuri iki kibazo byo ni agatereranzambaUbu hemejwe kwibuka abatutsi ngo bazize jenoside kuva 1959. Na Senateri Bizimana abigarukaho. Igisobanuro ngo ni uko kuva icyo gihe jenoside yateguwe na MDR, ababiligi na Kiliziya, nyuma hiyongeraho abafaransa mu kuyishyira mu bikorwa. Ku bya Kiliziya ho ararye ari menge. Muri 1959, 95% by’abapadiri bari abatutsi. Ubwo ni bo bagize uruhare mu gutegura jenoside yagombaga guhitana ababo! Ahandi ho FPR yemeza ko ari yo yatangije jenoside umunsi itera u Rwanda. Mu Itegeko Nshinga ryo ku wa 26 gicurasi 2003, ingingo yaryo ya 14 iragira iti: “Leta, mu bushobozi bwayo, iteganya ibikorwa byihariye bigamije imibereho myiza y’abasizwe iheruheru na jenoside yabaye mu Rwanda kuva ku wa 1 Ukwakira 1990 kugeza ku wa 31 Ukuboza 1994, abantu bafite ubumuga, abatindi nyakujya, abageze mu zabukuru n’abandi batagira kivurira”.

Ni byiza kwibukiranya uko ibintu byakurikiranye muri iriya minsi. Tariki ya 1 ukwakira 1990, bamwe mu basirikari b’ingabo za Uganda baremye umutwe bise FPR Inkotanyi batera u Rwanda binjiriye Kagitumba. Bahanganye n’ingabo zari muri ako gace, ndetse bukeye bwaho bakubitwa inshuro bihindira muri Uganda. Ni uwo munsi Fred Rwigema yapfuyeho. Tariki 5 z’uko kwezi, ni ho Kigali hafashwe abantu barafungwa bashinjwa kuba ibyitso by’inkotanyi. Ibi mbyibukije ngira ngo nerekane ko nta kindi gikorwa cyabaye tariki 1 ukwakira 1990 twashingiraho dufata iyo tariki nk’intangiriro ya jenoside.

 

Biragoye kumenya uwashyize iriya ngingo mu itegeko nshinga icyo yari agamije. Iyo wenda aza kuvuga tariki 2 ukwakira 1990. Byari kwitwa ko intambara yateye noneho mu Rwanda bakihimura bica abatutsi. Ku itariki ya mbere ukwakira nta n’umututsi witsamuye, keretse uwari urwaye ibicurane. Uwahisemo iriya ngingo yari agamije iki?  Hari bibiri umuntu yakeka.

Birashoboka ko yashakaga kwemeza ko FPR ari yo yatangije jenoside. Ntibyaba bitangaje kuko FPR ifite abanzi benshi mu bo yita abanywanyi bayo. Nk’uko byanakunze kugaragara, hari abo ishyira imbere nyamara buje ubuswa no guhubuka, icyo kikaba ari kimwe mu biyigejeje aharindimuka. Ikindi gishoboka ariko, ni uko FPR yaba yarabikoze ibizi kandi ibishaka, ikaba yari igamije kuninora abatutsi ko ibyababayeho ari yo yabitangije. Si n’ubwa mbere FPR yishongora ku barokotse jenoside nk’uko nigeze kubyerekana mu yindi nyandiko. Uwumva arumve. Ngo Kadakenga yaranyereye avunika ugutwi, yongeye kunyerera avunika ijosi, ati urupfu rurancira amarenga nkaba umwana”. Ukuri kwa FPR ni uko jenoside yatangiye tariki 1 ukwakira 1990 itangijwe na FPR. Usibye igitero yagabye uwo munsi, nta kindi cyabaye cyatuma iyo tariki ifatwa nk’intangiro ya jenoside. Niba hari ufite ikindi gisobanuro, namubwira iki.

4. Icyunamo gihoraho n’ishyingura ritarangira.

Nyuma y’imyaka 20 turacyakora icyunamo. Mu kinyarwanda kimwe no mu yindi mico ku isi, icyunamo ni mwanya wo gusenyuka ku basigaye bitewe n’uwabo washoje urugendo. Impamvu ni uko uwacu ugiye burya haba hari igipande cyacu kijyanye na we: amateka twasangiye, imiruho n’ibyishimo…tuba dukeneye igihe cyo gupfana na we. Gusa na none, ikiba kigamijwe si uguheranwa n’urupfu. Tuba tugira ngo ibyo nibirangira tuzuke, tweguke dukomeze urugendo, kuko twebwe igihe tukiriho, tugomba kubaho. Ni yo mpamvu icyunamo kiba kigomba kugira aho kirangirira ngo abantu bongere biyubake. Ibyo ntibibabuza nyuma guhora bakibuka. Kwibuka aho bitandukaniye n’icyunamo, abantu ntibahuzwa no kuririra uwagiye, bibuka ubupfura bwe, ubwitange, umurava n’ibindi byose bidakwiye kwabagirana.

Mu rwa Gasabo ho FPR yashyizeho icyunamo kidashira. Nyuma y’imyaka 20 ngo turacyakora icyunamo cya buri mwaka. Igisobanuro ngo ni uko amahano yabaye arenze urugero (kandi koko ni byo) icyunamo cyayo kikaba kitamera nk’icy’urupfu rusanzwe. Uko wagoragoza kose, ni amahano kumara imyaka 20 mu cyunamo. Twakagombye kuba twaratangiye kwibuka. Mu rwego rwo gutinza iyo mpinduka, FPR yashyizeho ishyingura ritarangira. Hari imibiri imaze gutabururwa no kwimurwa incuro nk’eshanu. N’ubu kuyangaza imisozi ntibirarangira. Ikindi kidasanzwe ni ukwanika uduhanga tw’abantu ku nzibutso. Igisobanuro ngo ni ukugira ngo bitazibagirana. Ntaho byabaye. Kuko no gushyingurwa biri mu burenganzira bwa muntu. Ushatse ibimenyetso hari amafoto n’ubudi buhanga bwakoreshwa. FPR yo yarahiye ko abacu batazaruhukira mu mahoro igihe cyose igikeneye kubabyaza umusaruro. Abaganira na Kagame muzamubwire niba abishima, azatange urugero. Nka buriya afashe ibisigazwa bya nyirasenge Gicanda akabyanika ku muryango w’urwibutso rwa Nyanza twamenya koko ko ibyo akorera abandi atabikoreshwa n’izindi nyungu no gushinyagura. Cyakora ikibimutera turakizi: gucuruza ibyago n’amarira y’abandi!

5. Abarokotse jenoside babaye Imbyeyi idateka.

Uwashaka kumenya uburyo bamaze imyaka 20 bakamwa amafaranga akiza agatsiko, yasoma inyandiko yasohotse mu kinyamakuru igihe.com mu cyumweru gishize. Yerekanaga uburyo amafaranga ya FARG hari abanzikiye kuyarira kuyamara. Iyo nyandiko aragira iti:

“Ubugenzuzi bwakozwe n’Urwego rw’Umuvunyi mu Kwakira 2012 kugeza muri Mata 2013, bugashyirwa muri raporo yashyikirijwe Minisitiri w’Intebe Dr Habumuremyi Pierre Damien, ndetse n’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko, bugaragaza ko hari ibikoresho by’ishuri byaguzwe na FARG bigenewe abanyeshuri bacitse ku icumu byandagaye hirya no hino mu Turere bitigeze bishyikirizwa abo bigenewe nk’uko byari biteganyijwe. Iyi raporo kandi igaragaza ko mu mafaranga yagenewe FARG agera kuri miliyoni 130 n’ibuhumbi 783 n’amafaranga 706, ubuyobozi bwa FARG butabasha gusobanura imikoreshereze yayo ndetse n’amafaranga arenga miliyoni 86 n’ibihumbi 854 n’amafaranga 947 yakoreshejwe indi mirimo idafite aho ihuriye n’ibikorwa biterwa inkunga na FARG. Ubu bugenzuzi kandi bukomeza bwerekana ko hari n’ibigo by’amashuri byo mu turere icyenda, FARG ibereyemo umwenda ungana na 41,810,138 biba byarahaye ubumenyi n’abana FARG ibereye umubyeyi ariko byakwandikira FARG byishyuza ikavunira ibiti mu matwi”.http://www.igihe.com/amakuru/u-rwanda/article/farg-na-minaloc-ibisobanuro

Iyo ufashe miliyoni 130 zari zigenwe, ugakuramo 86 zakoreshejwe ngo ibitagize aho bihuriye na FARG. Hasigara miliyoni 44. Wakuramo miliyoni 41 zari zigenewe ibigo by’amashuri zitishyuwe (zagiye ahatazwi) hasigara miliyoni 3 gusa. Izi eshatu ni zo zageze ku barokotse. Niba hari uhakana ko ibi atari ugucuruza abarokotse jenoside natubwire uko we abyita.

6. TPIR isize amapfundo.

Ikindi cyaranze iyi myaka 20 ni urukiko mpuzamahanga rwashyiriweho guca imanza, TPIR. N’ubwo rwari rufite inshingano yo gukurikirana ibyaha byose ku mpande zombi zarwanaga, rurangiye aba FPR bakidegembya. Benshi barugaya kubogama. Iyaba ibi byari ukuri, Kagame n’amashumi ye twakagombye kubabonana umucyo mu maso. Nyamara si ko bimeze. Uko bukeye barushaho guta umutwe kugeza n’aho ubakuriye Museveni yigamba ko bafite umushinga wo kurimbura “bantous”. Ku muntu witambukira mu nzira, TPIR yakingiye ikibaba FPR. Ku muntu ureba kure, TPIR isize imanitse ibya jenoside mu kirere. Bishobora guhanuka igihe icyo ari cyo cyose, kandi umwe mu bafite amahirwe menshi ko byamugwira ni FPR. Reka nisobanure.

Kugeza ubu ntawe urahamwa no gutegura jenoside.

TPIR isize yemeje jenoside itagira uwayiteguye. Byarabanje babyumvisha Kambanda ngo yemere ko guverinoma yari ayoboye ari yo yayiteguye, biyibagiza ko iyi guvernoma yagiyeho jenoside yaratangiye ! FPR yanditse mu Itegeko Nshinga ko ngo jenoside yatangiye ku ya 1 ukwakira 1990. Loni yo ngo yatangiye tariki 1 mutarama 1994. Ufashe ibya Loni igipindi gihita gisenyuka kuko Guverinoma y’abatabazi ntiyategura jenoside yayitanze kubaho ho amezi ane. Ufashe ibya FPR bwo waba ushyize ibintu i Rudubi. Uwari witezwe ni Bagosora. Urukiko rugiye kubyica rumuhamya ibyaha byose ariko rumuhanaguraho icyo gutegura jenoside. Nguwo umutego uzashibukana FPR ejo hazaza. Umunsi zahinduye imirishyo, iki cyuho cy’uwateguye tuzi uzakijyamo: FPR. Aha wahahera wumva icyo Mugesera azira. FPR irifuza ko yakwemera ko muri MRND bateguye jenoside. Yababereye ibamba. None amaso yaheze mu kirere.

Guverinoma y’abatabazi nta jenoside yakoze.

Ubivuze gutya abantu bashobora kwikanga, nyamara usesenguye imanza za Arusha ni wo mwanzuro ugeraho. Icyo urukiko rwa Arusha rwemeje, ni uko mu bari bagize guverinoma y’abatabazi hari abahamwa n’iki cyaha. Nyamara kibahama buri wese ku giti cye. Ntabwo gihama guverinoma muri rusange nk’itsinda. Gihamya ni uko babiri mu bari bayigize bagizwe abere. Abo ni Andereya Ntagerura wari minisitiri w’itumanaho no gutwara ibintu na Andereya Rwamakuba wari minisitiri w’uburezi. Kandi koko icyagaragaye mu manza, nta nyandiko, nta nama cyangwa ikindi kigaragaza aho guverinoma yateranye igashishikariza abantu gukora jenoside. N’abakatiwe byaturutse ku bikorwa byabo ku giti cyabo mu duce tunyuranye tw’igihugu. Mu yandi magambo, icyaha nticyabahamye nk’abaminisitiri cyabahamye nk’abantu ku giti cyabo.

Ingabo z’u Rwanda(FAR) jenoside ntizihama.

Uko byagendekeye guverinoma y’abatabazi ni na ko bimeze mu bari ingabo z’igihugu. Abahamijwe icyaha byaturutse ku bikorwa by’umuntu ku giti cye, ariko bitavuze ko hari umugambi ingabo zagize wo gukora jenoside. Ikimenyimenyi, ni uko abari bazikuriye ku nzego zo hejuru bagizwe abere. Twafata nk’urugero rwa Gratiyani Kabiligi wari G3, ni ukuvuga umuyobozi ku rwego rwa gatatu ushinzwe ibikorwa bya gisirikari. Twavuga na Ndindiliyimana wari uyoboye Jandarumori. Kugirwa abere kw’aba bantu ni ubutumwa bukomeye ko ingabo nta kigaragaza ko zagize umugambi, cyangwa amabwiriza yo gukora jenoside. Gusa hari abayishoyemo ku giti cyabo.

Ibi byose birerekana ko Arusha, n’ubwo yabogamiye ku Nkotanyi, nyamara isize umuryango ufunguye. Ibi biratanga uburyo ko mu gihe kiri imbere, FPR nimara guhirima, ibyuho byagaragaraga mu manza za jenoside byazagira uburyo bwo gusibwa. Ikindi ni uko kuba ingabo na guverinoma y’abatabazi jenoside itabahama muri rusange, ejo n’ejobundi bizafasha kumva neza amateka ya jenoside bitambutse uyu murongo ntayega waciwe na FPR.

7. Kagame imbeho iragenda irushaho kumubana ubutita.

Ibi byose tumaze kuvuga Kagame na FPR barabizi, n’amahanga arabibona. Wahera aha ukumva akato Kagame agenda yinjiramo buri munsi, n’impamvu arushaho guta umutwe no kuvuga amateshwa. Mu myaka yashize, mu cyunamo i Kigali byabaga ari uruvunganzoka rw’abashyitsi biganjemo abakuru b’ibihugu n’aba za guverinoma. Uwitegereje uyu mwaka yabonye uburyo byitabiriwe n’abayobozi bacyuye igihe kurusha abakiri mu mirimo. Nyamara FPR yari yatangije icyunamo mu kwa mbere mu kureba ko uyu mwaka wayibera umwihariko. Umwihariko warabaye ariko si uwari witezwe. Hari hitezwe abashyitsi batabarika, none haje mbarwa. Abanyaburayi bamaze gukuramo akabo karenge, keretse nka Blair Tony na we kubera imirimo arangiriza muri RDB. Abakuru b’ibihugu na guverinoma bari mbwarwa ( Yoweri Museveni wa Uganda, Uhuru Kenyatta wa Kenya, Ali Bongo Ondimba wa Gabon, Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta wa Mali, Denis Sassou Nguesso wa Congo, Hassan Sheikh Mohamud wa Somalia, na Hailemariam Desalegn wa Etiyopiya).

Ibi ntibiterwa n’uko amahanga atagiha agaciro jenoside, ahubwo arishisha Kagame n’ubucuruzi ayibyaza. Mu myaka yashize barahururaga kuko yari akibabeshya ko ari Nyirubutungane na Mukiza. Aho bamariye kuvumbura ko ari Bihemu na Kirimbuzi, ntawe ugishaka gusohoka ku ifoto imwe na we. Aho abayobozi bo ku isi, cyane cyane i Burayi na Amerika batangiye kumuhunga, yiyuburuyemo umwarimu wa za Collège zo muri Amerika. Kuko nyine abayobozi batakimutumira, arikora akazenguruka Amerika ngo atanga ibiganiro muri za Collège. Muribuka umwaka ushize ubwo yasiganwaga na Kikwete. Gusa ingendo zabo zari zihabanye. Mu gihe Kikwete yakirwaga n’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko y’Amerika, Kagame yari muri College tutazi. Quelque part sur la terre!! Aho akigerageza gukandira ni muri EAC (East African Community). Na byo mu cyumweru gitaha tuzabereka uburyo bitarimo kumuhira nk’uko bamwe babikeka.

8. Abambari ba Kagame mu ihurizo rya Nzamugwinyuma.

Abambari ba Kagame na bo bageze mu gihirahiro. Umugani w’Abarundi, babuze ayo bacira n’ayo bamira. Ku ruhande rumwe baramukeneye kuko bamuriraho. Ku rundi ruhande barabona ko amarembera agenda yagereza. Hagati ya Zibukira na Nzamugwinyuma (nzamugwimbere ku bwa minisitiri Mussa Fazil) ihurizo ni ryose. Mu kubafasha kwihangana no kuzirikana amaherezo yabo, reka mbature aka karirimbo ka nyakwigendera Georges Moustaki, yakise “Chanson cri” (Intabaza). Ndayandukura uko iri ngo ntamwicira inganzo, nyuma nyishyire mu kinyarwanda ku batumva ururimi rwa bene madamu:

Je veux que ma chanson soit comme un cri d’alarme

Entre un air à la mode et un chanteur de charme
Et même si je ne chante pas assez fort
Qu’on veuille m’écouter trois minutes encore…

Je dis que le bateau prend l’eau de tout coté

Il est temps qu’on essaye de le colmater
Victime ou criminel les deux sont concernés
Et s’il y a un coupable on est tous condamnés

 

Ndifuza ko iyi ndirimbo yanjye yababera nk’impuruza

Wenda ntigezweho cyangwa ngo ibashimishe

Ndabizi ko ijwi ryanjye ritarangurura bihambaye

Ariko nyabuneka nimunyumve byibura iminota itatu…

 

Dore ubwato buratobotse kandi amazi arabinjirana impande zose

Iki cyari igihe gikwiye cyo kubusana imitutu

Waba umwicanyi cyangwa urengana mwese birabareba

Kuko niba hari uwo icyaha gihama mwese muzafatanya kwishyura.

 

 

Mugire amahoro,

Edmond Munyangaju.

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