COUP D ETAT 1973. Abishyize hamwe nta kibananira 3 : Zitukwamo nkuru .

kayibanda

Nyakubahwa Grégoire Kayibanda

Reka tubanze tuvuge ivanwa ku butegetsi, ifungwa, urubanza n’iyicwa rya Nyakubahwa Grégoire Kayibanda. Tuzakomeza dusuzuma niba Habyarimana yari afite impamvu zifadika zo guhirika ingoma ya Kayibanda. Hanyuma tuzakurikizaho ifungwa, imanza n’iyicwa ry’abandi.

Umubiligi witwa Baudouin Paternostre de la Mairieu yanditse igitabo cyiza cyane ku buzima bwa Nyakubahwa Grégoire Kayibanda. Mu gifaransa icyo gitabo cyitwa “Pour vous mes frères !” Vie de Grégoire Kayibanda, premier président du Rwanda”. Mu kinyarwanda ni ukuvuga ngo : “Ikigamijwe ni ineza yanyu, Bavandimwe !” Ubuzima bwa Grégoire Kayibanda, perezida wambere w’u Rwanda” (Ed. Pierre Téqui, Paris, 1994). Icyo gitabo ni cyiza cyane, ariko iyo uwacyanditse ageze ku rupfu rwa Nyakubahwa Grégoire Kayibanda, aratangira akaruma agahuha. Bigaragara ko hari ibintu adashaka kuvuga kandi asa n’ubizi. Nangwa na we ariko, ntacurikiranya amagambo ngo agoreke amateka nk’uko uwitwa Omer Marshall abikora mu gitabo cye cyitwa Pleure ô Rwanda bien-aimé,  Omer Marchal Éditeur, 1994, cyangwa Eugène Shimamungu mu gitabo cye  twavuze ubushize cyitwa Juvénal Habyarimana, l’homme assasiné le 6 avril 1994, Ed. Sources du Nil, Lille 2004.

Ku wa 5 Nyakanga 1973 hari hateganijwe ku cyicaro cya buri perefegitura yo mu Rwanda inama y’ishyaka MDR Parmehutu (Congrès préfectoral). Ku murongo w’ibyigwa muri buri perefegitura, hari ugusuzuma icyateje imvururu zari zayogoje u Rwanda guhera mu kwezi kwa Gashyantare kw’uwo mwaka, no kureba niba itegeko nshinga ryaragombaga guhindurwa, perezida Grégoire Kayibanda akaba yakongera kwiyamamariza umwanya wo kuba umukuru w’igihugu, cyangwa niba ibyo byari byanzwe, hakemezwa ko perezida Grégoire Kayibanda acyuye igihe cye. Izi ngingo zombi zari ku muronko w’ibyigwa (hari n’izindi nyinshi) zishobora gutuma buri wese yumva impamvu kudeta yabaye ku wa 5 Nyakanga 1973, ariko ibyo tuzabigarukaho tureba niba Habyalimana yari afite impamvu nyazo zo guhirika ingoma ya perezida Grégoire Kayibanda.

Mu ijoro ry’uwa 4 rishyira uwa 5 Nyakanga 1973, perezida Grégoire Kayibanda yari yicaye iwe i Kigali, arimo ategura disikuru yagombaga kuvuga bukeye mu nama (congrès) ya MDR Parmehutu i Gitarama. Ni bwo rero urugogwe rumugwiriye, kudeta irabaye, afashwe mpiri.  Umufasha we, Verediyana Mukagatare, yari ahari ibyo biba. Kayibanda yamusabye gusanga abana i Gitarama , aranga. Ati “Oya, ndakuguma iruhande kugirango menye iyo bakujyanye”. Nuko rero itsinda ry’abasirikari riyobowe na Léonidas Rusatira ribajyana bombi shishi itabona, amaguru adakora hasi, hamwe n’umwana wabo w’umuhererezi Sylvia wari ukiri uruhinja, kubafungisha ijisho mu kigo cya ISAR Rwerere, komine Cyeru mu cyahoze ari perefegitura ya Ruhengeri. Bahoraga bacunzwe n’abasirikari bagera kuri 15. Benshi muri bo bababaniraga neza, ariko hari n’abandi bubahukaga Kayibanda ndetse bakanamusagarira. Nyuma y’amezi 5 abana n’umugabo we muri ubwo buzima butoroshye, Verediyana yifuje gusanga abana i Gitarama. Yafashe urw’amaguru n’umwana mu mugongo, agenda ibilometero byinshi cyane. Le 22 Ukuboza 1973, nibwo ijipe ya gisilikari yamusanze kuri Base, iramujyana kugera mu rugo rwe i Kavumu (Nyamabuye-Gitarama).

Le 4 Gashyanyare 1974  urukiko rwa gisirikari rushinzwe kuburanisha perezida Grégoire Kayibanda na bagenzi be rwatangiye imirimo yarwo mu nyubakwa y’urukiko rwambere rw’iremezo mu Ruhengeri. Rwari ruyobowe na Majoro Bonaventure Ntibitura. Yari yungirijwe na Komanda Théoneste Lizinde. Joseph Kavaruganda wari usanzwe ari na “Procureur de la république” ni we wari uhagarariye icyo bita mu gifaransa “la partie civile”. Mu gushinja bamwe mu baregwa, yasyaga atanzitse. Gerefiye w’urukiko yari Déogratias Kayibanda wari usanzwe ari “substitut principal” wa “procureur de la république”. Umujyanama w’urwo rukiko yari Maître Nicodème Ruhashyankiko wigishaga amategeko (droit) muri kaminuza nkuru y’u Rwanda.  Abari bashinzwe guhata izo mfungwa ibibazo, bakazikorera amadosiye yashyikirizwaga ubucamanza ni abasirikari bakuru (officiers) : François Burasa ubu uba muri Norvège, Nyamwasa G. na Mutabazi D. Le 26 Kamena 1974, urwo rukiko rwakatiye perezida Grégoire Kayibanda na bagenzi be 7 igihano cy’urupfu. Urukiko rwahereyeko ruvanwaho rutararangira kuburanisha no gusomera abaregwaga bose. Naho inyubakwa izo manza zaberagamo yaje gukongorwa n’inkongi y’umuriro hasigaye igihe gito ngo Bwana Protais Zigiranyirazo, muramu wa perezida Habyarimana, akaba yari perefe wa Ruhengeri igihe cy’izo manza,  ave kuri uwo murimo. N’inyandiko zose zirebana n’izo manza zahiriyemo.

Ku wa 19 Nyakanga 1974 Grégoire Kayibanda yarakomorewe, igihano cye cy’urupfu kiba icyo gufungwa burundu, akomeza ubuzima bwe i Rwerere. Kuva ukwezi kwa Nyakanga 1974 kugeze hagati, Verediyana Mukagatare yatangiye kugaragaza intege ke cyane, ashegeshwe n’ibyamubayeho byose kuva le 5 Nyakanga 1973, ariko cyane cyane n’uko umugabo we yari amaze gukatirwa urwo gupfa. Le 11 Nzeri 1974 Grégoire yimuriwe iwe mu rugo kugirango amube hafi. Yaje kwitaba Imana le 13 Ukwakira 1974. Leta yategetse ko hatagira umuntu n’umwe umusabira misa, haba i Kabgayi, haba n’ahandi hantu aho ari ho hose mu Rwanda. Uwakongera uyu mubyeyi Verdiyana Mukagatare ku rutonde rw’abishwe n’abakoze kudeta yo ku wa 5 Nyakanga 1973 mu Rwanda ntiyaba abeshye.

Nyuma y’urupfu rw’umugore we, imibereho ya Grégoire Kayibanda yarushijeho kuba inzira y’umusaraba. Inzu ye yari ifite isuku, bitewe ahanini n’ubwitange bwa nyirabukwe wari ugeze mu zabukuru, akita no ku mirima no ku rutoke rw’umukwe we. Hari n’umusaza wateguraga ibiribwa, akabizana mu rugo hamwe n’inkwi zo kubiteka. Abaturanyi bazaga guhinga imirima ye, bakanamuganirizaho gato. Le 6 Ukwakira 1976 abo bantu bose babujijwe kuzongera kuhakandagiza ikirenge, ahubwo Grégoire Kayibanda ahatwa ibibazo bamubaza ibyo yaganiraga n’abo bantu n’ibyo babaga baje gukora.

Le 27 Ugushyingo 1976 yasuwe ku buryo butunguranye na Komanda Elie Sagatwa, muramu wa perezida Habyarimana, akaba n’umunyamabanga we wihariye kandi uhoraho (secrétaire particulier et permanent). Baganiriye nk’isaha yose. Le 2 Ukuboza 1976 nyuma ya saa sita, Sagatwa yongeye kumusura, ndetse amujyana kuramutsa se na nyina. Uwo mugoroba Kayibanda yamaranye n’ababyeyi be iminota 20 gusa. Le 14 Ukuboza 1976 isaa tatu n’igice za mu gitondo (09h00), Grégoire Kayibanda yatangiye gutaka avuga ko ababara ahagana ku mutima. Umuganga uvuye ku bitaro by’i Kabgayi yamugezeho saa moya za niumugoroba (19h00). Yasubiriwe nijoro, le 15 Ukuboza 1976  aba avuyemo umwuka.

Yishwe n’iki mu by’ukuri ?

Nyakubahwa perezida Grégoire Kayibanda yahotowe na Komanda Elie Sagatwa, ariko ubwo nawe yari afite uwamutumye cyangwa abamutumye. Jean Shyirambere Barahinyura yabyanditse mu w’1988 muri cya gitabo cye twavugaga ubushize. Nyuma ariko umwe mu babigazeho n’undi umwe mu bafashije Sagatwa gukora iryo shyano begereye umushakashatsi Mwalimu Bonaventure Mureme Kubwimana, babimubwira neza. Mu by’ukuri, igihe cyose Sagatwa yajyaga gusura Grégoire Kayibanda, yabaga agiye gusuzuma uko intege ze zikomeza kugenda ziba nke, ku buryo abishatse yamuniga batabanje kugugurana.

Ubuhamya bwa Liyetona Mutabaruka uko bwanditswe na Bonaventure Mureme K.

Liyetona Mutabaruka uvuka i Byumba yari umusirikari mukuru wo mu itsinda (promotion) rya 10 ry’abanyeshuri bo mu ishuri rikuru rya gisirikari i Kigali. Mu w’1975 yategekaga ikigo cya gisilikali cya Gitarama. Ni we rero wari ushinzwe kurinda imfungwa idasanzwe : perezida Grégoire Kayibanda. Umunsi umwe, Komanda Elie Sagatwa yaje kumusura, amusaba kwica uwo “mugororwa”. Mutabaruka yagize ubwoba, asaba ko bamuha igihe cyo kubitekerezaho. Yagiye kugisha inama Bwana Fulgence Seminega nawe wavukaga i Byumba, icyo gihe akaba yarategekaga urukiko rw’ikirenga. Seminega yumvise neza igihirahiro uwo musirikari arimo, aramubwira ati : “Genda ubwire Sagatwa aguhe inyandiko irimo iryo tegeko ko ugomba kwica Kayibanda”. Sagatwa agarutse, Mutabaruka yamusabye iyo nyandiko. Sagatwa yaramubwiye ati : “nsubiye i Kigali, nzagaruka nyikuzaniye”. Ntiyigeze agaruka, ahubwo Mutabaruka nawe yimuriwe i Kigali, asimburwa i Gitarama na liyetona Papias Kanyandekwe. Nyuma yaho gato, inkuru iba kimomo ngo Grégoire Kayibanda yitabye Imana. Kuva icyo gihe, izamurwa rya Mutabaruka mu mapeta ryaragoranye cyane. Yaradindizwaga, abari kumwe nawe bakamusiga, abari inyumaye bakamucaho.

Ubuhamya bwa Kaporali Giti uko bwanditswe na Bonaventure Mureme K.

“Giti” ni umukaporali nawe uvuka i Byumba wanze ko amazina nyakuri atangazwa, nuko rero Mwalimu Bonaventure amuhimba irya “Giti”. Giti yabaga mu kigo cya gisilikali cya Gitarama. Yari mu itsinda rishinzwe kurinda inzu ya Kayibanda le 15 Ukuboza 1976, umunsi Sagatwa aza akamuniga, hanyuma Giti n’abari kumwe nawe bakamuhorahoza bamunyukanyuka, bamuvuna imbavu. N’ikimenyimenyi, bafunzwe bya nyirarureshwa, nyuma baza gufungurwa bidatinze, ndetse buri wese ahabwa umushahara we w’imyaka 2, hanyuma birukanwa mu gisirikari, buri wese acirwa muri komini ye kavukire. Giti yaje kuba umuzamu ahantu umuzungu w’umubiligi yubakaga amazu muri komini avukamo. Iby’uko yagize uruhare mu kwica Grégoire Kayibanda yarabivugaga kugirango bimuvemo kugirango yumve nawe yagira amahoro mu mutimanama we.

Ishyingurwa rya nyakubahwa perezida Grégoire Kayibanda

Nyakubahwa perezida Grégoire Kayibanda yashyinguwe le 15 Ukuboza 1976 isaa cyenda n’igice iwe mu rugo iruhande rw’aho umufasha we yari yarashyinguwe . Yashyinguwe na Musenyeri André Perraudin, akikijwe na Musenyeri Aloys Bigirumwami, Musenyeri Jean Baptiste Gahamanyi, Musenyeri Phocas Nikwigize, Musenyeri Joseph Sibomana na padiri Massion. Mu bana 8 hari  6 ,  hari kandi abantu benshi bo mu muryango we n’abaturanyi, hakaba kandi Komanda Elie Sagatwa na Liyetona Papias Kanyandekwe n’abasirikari bagera kuri 20 bo mu kigo cya gisirikari cya Gitarama. Intego ya Kayibanda, ari nayo yanditse ku mva mu rulimi rw’ikilatini yari : “Libertatem filorum Dei”. Mu gifaransa bivuga ngo : “Liberté des enfants de Dieu”. Mu kinyarwanda ni “Ukwishyira ukizana kw’abana b’Imana”.

Ikindi gitabo ubishoboye yasoma kugirango acengere kurushaho ibi turiho tuganira muri iyi minsi ni icya Eugène Ndahayo, mwene Claver Ndahayo nawe wahitanywe n’ubu bwicanyi. Icyo gitabo cyitwa Rwanda – Le dessous des cartes, Ed. L’Harmattan, Paris, 2001. Nk’uko twabivuze dutangira, ubutaha tuzarebera hamwe niba Habyarimana yari afite impamvu zifatika zo guhirika ingoma ya Kayibanda, twibaze kandi icyatumye yicanwa n’abafasha be benshi cyane.

 

BIRACYAZA 

Musemakweli Jean de Dieu

 

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