Ese bariya bantu bose bazize ko nabo bashatse kwica Habyarimana akarusimbuka hamana ?

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Bamwe mu ba camarades du V Juillet

Tumaze iminsi dusoma ibijyanye n’amateka yaranze u rwanda, cyane cyane chapitre ya coup d’etat yo muri 1973. iyi coup d’etat niyo yabaye nyirabayazana w’inzika zabaye hagati y’abiswe abanyenduga n’abiswe abakiga. Nyuma yayo, ibyiza by’igihugu byinshi byikubiwe n’abantu bakomokaga mu turere twa Gisenyi na Ruhengeri cyangwa rimwe na rimwe Byumba. ibi byatumye mu by’ukuri abanyarwanda batumva ko bafite uruhare rungana ku gihugu ku buryo byagize ingaruka mu gihe cy’intambara yatangijwe n’Inkotanyi mu kwezi kwa 10 umwaka wa 1990.

Byageze aho abanyenduga bamwe bumva ko urugamba rugomba kurwanwa n’abakiga ngo kuko ari bo bari bafite ibyo barwanira! Abasirikare bamwe batorokaga urugamba bakisangira Inkotanyi mu gihe abenshi mu bakiga bo bumvaga koko igihugu bagomba kukitangira kugeza kuwa nyuma. Muri politiki abanyenduga cg abiswe abanyenduga nibo babaye aba mbere mu gushinga amashyaka arwanya leta ndetse afatanya na FPR mu gushegesha Habyarimana. Twagiramungu Faustin yabyukije MDR (ariko iza ari pirate), Mugenzi Justin afatanyije na Lando bashinga PL, PSD nta we utari uyizi ko yari igizwe n’abanyabutare benshi,  Nayinzira Jean Nepomuscene ni we munyagisenyi wenyine washinze ishyaka rirwanya leta.

Nyuma yaho gatoya ikibazo cyaje gusa n’aho ari abahutu barwana n’abatutsi ariko byari byaratinze, FPR imaze kwemerwa no gushyigikirwa.

Kudasesengura iki kibazo bishobora gutuma dupfobya amasomo akubiyemo maze ejo bundi hagira urundi rugamba ruba ngombwa ugasanga abantu bakomeje ibyo byumviro. Ntawe ushobora gukira igisebe atavuye! 

Ubwanditsi.

 

Basomyi namwe bakunzi b’urubuga leprophete.fr, “mungaye guhera, ntimugaye gutinda”. Iki gice cya 6 cy’iyi nyandiko kije gitinzeho gato kubera impamvu 2. Iyambere ni uko nagize akazi kenshi. Iya 2 ni uko iyo nibukaga uburyo aba bantu bishwe, nahindurwaga, nafata ikaramu ngo mbyandike, ikiganza kigatitira, ikaramu ikitura hasi. Ubu ariko ndumva akanyabugabo kagarutse. Reka dukomeze.

Ubushize twarangirije igice cya 5 cy’iyi nyandiko ku buhamya bwa Suliyetona Viateur Nzaramba. Le 3 Nyakanga 1973 yari avuye i Kigali, yisubiriye iyo yari yaraciriwe mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda. Perezida Grégoire Kayibanda na Kapiteni André Bizimana bari bamaze kumukurira inzira ku murima bamubuza kugira icyo we hamwe n’abandi bakora ngo baburizemo kudeta babonaga iri gutegurwa na Habyarimana, Kanyarengwe, Lizinde n’abandi. Yanyuze i Kanombe gusezera kuri Liyetona Apollinaire Bikorimana. Apollinaire yaramubwiye ati : “Nutaza, ba Kanyarengwe barakora kudeta kandi nyamara na Habyarimana  abirimo”.

Le 4 Nyakanga 1973 perezida Grégoire Kayibanda yiriwe ashaka ministiri we w’Ingabo, akaba n’umugaba wazo, ari we Jenerali Majoro Juvénal Habyarimana ; aramubura. Yari yagiye he ? Ubundi  umuntu wari mu rwego rw’ubutegetsi nk’urwa Habyarimana ntiyashoboraga kurenga ibilometero 30 uva i Kigali, atabifitiye uruhushya rw’umukuriye (nk’uko basigaye bavuga mu kinyarwanda cy’ubu). Uwari ukuriye Habyarimana yari Kayibanda ubwe. Aho yaba yari yagiye hose rero, nta ruhushya yari afite. Iyo bitaba ibyo, Kayibanda ntiyari kwirirwa amushaka. Habyarimana ubwe yavugaga ko yari yagiye gutegura ubukwe bwa murumuna we, Dogiteri Séraphin Bararengana. Ibyo abantu benshi barabikemanga kubera impavu 2 : Bararengana yari mukuru bihagije ku buryo nawe yashoboraga kwitegurira ubukwe bwe. Impamvu ya 2 ni uko umusaza Ntibazirikana, se wa Habyarimana, yari arwariye i Kigali, rwose ari hafi kuvamo umwuka. Ntiyatinze no kwitahira hashize iminsi mike nyuma ya kudeta y’umuhungu we. Ku mugoroba wa joro icyakora, Habyarimana yaje kujya kwa Kayibanda. Ntagushidikanya ko Kayibanda yamukabukiye kubera izo mpamvu zose, anamubaza ukuntu we, ufite mu nshingano ze umutekano w’igihugu n’uburyo bwose igihugu cyamuhaye cyo kuwubungabunga, ntacyo akora kugirango ahoshe umwuka mubi n’ibihuha byavugwaga kandi bikandikwa mu bipapuro bya taragiti (tracts) i Kigali. Agomba kuba yaranamubajije niba hari icyo azi ku bya kudeta byariho bihwihwiswa.

Icyakora Habyarimana yinjira anasohoka kwa Kayibanda, ntawigeze amuhutaza, ntawamurashe ngo amuhushe, yewe nta n’uwigeze amutunga urutoki. Kugeza uwo munsi Habyarimana yarajijishaga, ahisha ko ari mu mugambi wo guhirika Kayibanda ; ariko nyuma y’icyo kiganiro bagiranye, yabonye ko Kayibanda yatangiye kubinuganuga, ni uko na we  aherako yihutisha ibintu.

Abashoboraga kumubangamira kuri uwo munota wa nyuma ni ba nde ? Ni abasirikari bo mu gipolisi bwite cy’Ingabo (police militaire) bari barinze iryo joro kwa Kayibanda. Ni nde wari ubakuriye, ari na we wari wacaguye abariyo muri iryo joro ? Ni Kapiteni Charles Uwihoreye. Harabyarimana yaragiye abwira Uwihoreye ati “nari ndasiwe kwa Kayibanda, kubera iyo mpamvu ngombe ngire icyo nkora”. Uwihoreye byamubujije amahoro, ajya kubaza abari barinze kwa Kayibanda uko byagenze, bamubwira ko Habyarimana avuye aho, ko nta n’uwamutunze urutoki, ko ahubwo bamuhaye amasaluti gusa. Icyakora Uwihoreye yasize ababwiye ati : Ntimushyamirane n’abasirikari Habyarimana agiye kohereza hano, mubihorere. Uwihoreye yasubiye mu kigo cya gisirikari cya Kigali. Ntiyashoboraga kugisha Habyarimana impaka, ahubwo yamubwiye ko asanze Kayibanda acyicaye muri salo, hari ibintu ari kwandika. Ibyakurikiyeho (kuri perezida Grégoire Kayibanda) twabibonye mu gice cya 3 cy’iyi nyandiko.

Abandi se bo byabagendekeye bite ?

Ifatwa ryabo ryabaye mu byiciro 2. Bamwe bafashwe mu cyumweru cyakurikiye kudeta, abandi batoraguwe mu mezi yakurikiyeho. Ntawarondora ifatwa rya buri wese ngo azarangize. Reka tuvuge gusa irya Kapiteni André Bizimana. Yari atuye imbere y’ishuri ry’Ababiligi (École belge). Bamutumye Guillaume Mbonigaba umusuzofisiye (sous-officier) w’umukanishi akaba yari na mukuru wa Majoro Rwendeye. Yarakomanze, baramukingurira, abwira Bizimana ko Habyarimana yifuza kubonana na we kuri Etat-Major. Bizimana yasubiye mu nzu, yambara neza, afata ikaramu n’impapuro, araza. Yashatse gufata imodoka ye bwite, Guillaume ati “ese waje tukajyana muri iriya jipe nazanye ?” Undi yabyemeranye umutima mwiza. Yaba umuntu waraye ahushije Habyarimana, ntaba yaremeye. Yarabutswe ijipe igeze kuri Nyabugogo, abaza niba uwo ari wo muhanda ujya kuri Etat-Major, bamushyiramo amapingo, bamujyana muri gereza yo mu Ruhengeri. Ni ho benshi bafungiwe, abandi bajyanwa muri gereza ya Gisenyi.

Iyicwa ryabo

Twibutse ko muri Gashyantare 1974 hari urukiko rwa gisirikari rwatangiye kubaburanisha. Rwahagaritse imirimo yarwo mu cyi ry’uwo mwaka rutababuranishije bose. Umunani muri bo rwari rwarakatiye urwo gupfa, barimo na perezida Grégoire Kayibanda, bari bamaze gukomorerwa, bahawe igihano cyo gufungwa burundu.  Ni iki cyatumye urukiko ruhagarika imirimo yarwo ? Ntawashidikanya rwose ko ubwo icyemezo cyari kimaze gufatwa ko bagomba gutangira kwicwa, niba bitari byaratangiye kera. Abishi babo bakaba baratinyaga ko urukiko rwajya ruhamagaza imfungwa iyi n’iyi rwibwira ko ikiriho, ngo ize iburane, ikabura, ubwo bikaba bibaye akabona bose ko uwo muntu yapfuye. Uwari waraguye mu bitaro bya Ruhengeri ku buryo buzwi (officiellement) yari Jean Gakire wari umunyamabanga mukuru (secrétaire général) muri ministeri y’ububanyi n’amahanga. Gakire yapfuye perefegitura ya Ruhengeri ikiyobowe na Pierre-Célestin Kabanda, atarasimburwa na Protais Zigiranyirazo wagize uruhare rukomeye mu iyicwa rya ziriya nzirakarengane nk’uko turi buze kubibona mu kanya.

Ubugome bwinshi

Nk’uko n’undi wese yabigenza, binubiye uburyo bari bafunzwemo : muri za Kamironko, ni ukuvuga muri kasho zitageramo urumuri, harimo imbeba, imbaragasa, ibiheri n’utundi dusimba. Binubiye kandi ko bagaburirwaga nabi. Abanzi babo bati “reka n’ibyo twabagaburiraga tubikureho, hanyuma mwicwe n’inzara n’inyota”. Ni uko byagenze. Muri bo hari umwe gusa w’igitsina gore, umwari (Mademoiselle) Agnès Kabarenzi, mushiki wa Kapitene André Bizimana. Ni we wamaze igihe kirekire kurusha abandi muri ayo magomerane, kuko yamaze amezi 2 yose atarya atanywa, hanyuma umutima we ugahagarara.  Abandi babonaga bagiye gupfa, bakabavana mu munyururu, bakajya kubica babakubise inyundo mu mutwe, ugize imana bakamurasa, abandi bakabahamba ari bazima. Mu bagize amahirwe yo kuraswa, hari abajugunywe mu rwobo rwa Bayanga mu Bugesera. Ibi bisa n’ibyabaye kuri perezida Grégoire Kayibanda ubwe nk’uko twabibonye mu gice cya 3 cy’iyi nyandiko. Hasigaye amezi 2 ngo bamunige, Sagatwa yatangiye kumwicisha inzara. Icyakora ngo “ntabapfira gushira”, Bwana Tharcisse Ndindiri wari umushoferi wa Kayibanda yafunguwe ari muzima, ariko uburyo yari ameze nabi bwatumye abamubonye bose bahebura ku birebana b’abari barafunganywe na we.

Ntakuntu bitari kumenyekana

Abicanyi babigizemo uruhare ni benshi cyane ku buryo kubika ibanga bitari gushoboka. Dore urutonde rwabo  rw’agateganyo :

·         Umukuru (Habyarimana) wavugaga “uramukiwe cyangwa abaramukiwe kwicwa”.

·         Umugaba wungirije w’Ingabo z’igihugu (Koloneli Serubuga).

·         Ministiri w’ubutegetsi bw’igihugu (Koloneli Kanyarengwe).

·         Uwategekaga urukiko rwa gisirikari rwari rumaze kuvanwaho (Majoro Ntibitura).

·         Umukuru w’urwego rukuru rw’iperereza (Komanda Lizinde).

·         Ushinzwe iperereza rya gisilikari muri Etat-major G2 (Kapitene BEM Simon Habyarimana).

·         Umukuru w’ingabo mu Ruhengeri (Kapiteni Stanislas Biseruka)

·         Umukuru w’ingabo ku Gisenyi (Kapiteni Matthias Havugwintore)

·         Perefe wa Ruhengeri (Bwana Protais Zigiranyirazo)

·         Perefe wa Gisenyi

·         Umuyobozi wa gereza ya Ruhengeri

·         Umuyobozi wa gereza ya Gisenyi

·         Abicanyi bapakizaga abagomba kwicwa mu mamodoka babajyana aho bagomba kwicirwa

(Butsitsi, Burasa, n’abandi)

Kuri abo bose hiyongeraho ababibonye cyangwa ababimenye bibagwiririye rwose batanabyifuzaga. Abo ni nka Dogiteri Cyprien Hakizimana wagombaga gusinya ibyemezo by’urupfu bivuga ko buri wese mu bishwe yapfuye ku buryo busanzwe (mort naturelle) azize indwara,  Kapiteni Rwabakika, liyetona Alphonse Baliyanga wategekaga abasirikari barindaga umukuru w’igihugu, Kapiteni Munyengango wayoboraga ikigo cya gisirikari cya Bugesera (yahurujwe n’abaturage bavuga ko babonye imirambo y’abantu batazwi ireremba hejuru y’amazi y’urwobo rwa Bayanga) ; abaturage babonaga ibyobo rusange bicukurwa bikajugunywamo imirambo y’abantu cyangwa se abantu bakiri bazima, n’abandi benshi.

Bamwe mu bicanyi byarabahungabanije. Kubivuga ni kimwe mu byabafashaga kumva nibura umutimanama wabo ugize amahoro ho gatoya. Abandi barabyigambye, ahari kuberako bibwiraga ko n’ubwo byamenyekana, ntacyo byabatwara. Mu bo byahungabanije harimo Komanda François Burasa. Mu w’1977 yarahungabanye cyane, biba ngombwa ko ajya mu bitaro by’abarwaye mu mutwe i Ndera. Bananiwe kumuvura, bamwohereza mu Bubiligi. Abaganga bo mu Bubiligi bamugiriye inama ko kugirango akire agomba kujya avuga iyo yumva bimuremereye. Ni bwo rero atangiye kujya abwira abaje kumusura bose ukuntu Habyarimana, Zigiranyirazo, Serubuga na Lizinde ari abantu babi, kubera ko bamutumye kwica abantu, bikamutera kurwara ; bo bakaba bigaramiye, ntacyo babaye. Yahereyeko agarurwa mu Rwanda daridari, asezererwa mu gisirikari, ajya kuba iwabo ku isambu. Amaze koroherwa, yagiye kwikorera ku giti cye.

Mu babyigambye twavuga nka Butsitsi, ndetse n’umukuru w’igihugu ubwe Jenerali Majoro Juvénal Habyarimana. Mu w’1979 yasabye Dogiteri Donat Murego kujya Addis-Abeba muri Etiyiopia kuba umunyabanga mukuru wungirije w’umuryango w’ubumwe bw’Afurika (OUA). Murego yaranze. Habyarimana asaba Dogiteri Sylvestre Nsanzimana wayoboraga kaminuza y’u Rwanda i Butare kuba ari we ujyayo. Nsanzimana yaremeye, Habyarimana amubaza niba hari icyamubuzaga guherako agenda. Nsanzimana yaravuze ati ntacyo usibye ko njye n’umuryango wanjye wose, hashize imyaka 6 nta gakuru ka muramu wanjye Gaspard Harerimana tuzi”. Habyarimana yaramusubije ngo bambwiye ko yapfuye. Hari ikindi kikubuza kugenda ? Nsanzimana ati “ntacyo”.

Izindi mpamvu zatumye ubu bwicanyi bumenyekana ni uko ab’ingenzi mu babigizemo uruhare basubiranyemo. Mu w’1980 Kanyarengwe, Lizinde, Biseruka n’abandi bagerageje gukora kudeta ngo bahirike Habyarimana. Lizinde yarafunzwe kubera iyo mpamvu, Habyarimana aboneraho akanya ko kumugerekaho n’icyaha cyo kuba yarishe we wenyine abari barafunzwe nyuma ya kudeta yo ku wa 5 Nyakanga 1973. Lizinde nawe ariko yasize inyandiko ndende (mémorandum) yitwa  “Des massacres cycliques au Rwanda et de la politique du bouc émissaire (Ubwicanyi bwakomeje kugenda bugarukirana mu Rwanda na politiki yo kugereka ibyaha ku bandi” yo ku 23 Gicurasi 1991. Muri iyo nyandiko Lizinde ashyira imfu z’aba bantu bose ku mutwe wa Habyarimana. Mu by’ukuri bombi babigizemo uruhare rukomeye cyane, umwe ari gatozi, undi ari icyitso, cyangwa bombi ari gatozi.

Indi mpamvu yatumaga ubu bwicanyi bwaragombaga kumenyekana byanze bikunze ni uko bamwe mu bayobozi ba kiliziya gatolika mu Rwanda, cyane cyane Musenyeri André Perraudin, bakomezaga kubaza amakuru y’izo mfungwa ariko badashakuje. Naho nka padiri Jean Marie Vianney Rusingizandekwe we yateraga hejuru rwose. Hari kandi n’imiryango mpuzamahanga nka “Amnesty International” nayo yakomezaga kubaririza.

Akaga k’imiryango (abagore n’abana) b’abishwe

Mu gihe abagabo bari bafunze bari no kwicwa uruhongohongo, imiryango yabo nayo yari ifungishijwe ijisho muri komini buri wese yavukagamo. Imitungo yabo, ari iyimukanwa n’itimukanwa, yariho ibohozwa ku buryo buteye isoni na bamwe mu bari bafite agatuza ku ngoma ya Habyarimana. Abari bafungishijwe ijisho nta burenganzira bari bafite bwo kurenga komini batuyemo batabanje kubona uruhushya rwa perefe wa perfegitura, kabone n’ubwo babaga bagomba kujya kwivuza. Inshuti zatinyukaga kujya kubasura zari nke cyane. N’ubusanzwe bakekaga ko ababo bishwe, icyakora bahebuye ruhenu mu w’1980, ubwo babimenyaga ku buryo budashikanywa binyuze mu nzira twavuze mu kanya.

Impozamarira

Leta ya Habyarimana yaje “kwibuka ibitereko yasheshe”. Mu rwego rwo kwivana mu isoni, yahaye impozamarira abapfakazi n’imfubyi z’abo yari yaramaze kwica. Ariko uburyo byakozwemo nabwo buteye agahinda. Mbere y’uko urubanza rwa 2 rwa Lizinde rutangira, urwo yaregwagamo kuba yarishe bariya bantu, abakozi bo mu kigo cy’iperereza bazaga nijoro, bagatwara abapfakazi, bakabajyana aho icyo kigo gikorera i Kigali,  bagategekwa kuvuga imyirondoro yabo n’iy’imfubyi bareraga. Ubwo bakongera bakabagarura iwabo muri iyo joro.

Rimwe rero baraje barabatoragura bose, babajyana i Gitarama kuri perefegitura. Icyo gihe perefe yari James Kabera. Bahasanze perefe nyine, umuhesha (procureur) Déogratias Kayibanda na Augustin Nduwayezu wategekaga urwego rukuru rw’iperereza mu Rwanda (Service central de renseignement – CSR). Uyu Augustin Nduwayezu yabwiraga buri mupfakazi ngo “Umukuru w’igihugu, Nyakubahwa Jenerali Majoro Juvénal Habyarimana, yababajwe cyane no kumenya ko umugome Lizinde yishe umugabo wawe, ukaba usigaye uri wenyine kandi ufite n’imfubyi ugomba kurera. Akaba yantumye  rero ngo nkubwire ngo “ukomere”, ngo ngushyikirize n’iyi mpozamarira ngomba”. Ubwo buri mupfakazi yahabwaga ibahasha ifunze. Nta burenganzira yabaga afite bwo guherako ayifungura, ahubwo yaheragako ategekwa gusinya cyangwa gutera igikumwe ku rupapuro rwanditseho ngo Amafaranga y’impozamarira, kubera umugabo wanjye / umubyeyi wanjye, waguye mu buroko yishwe na Lizinde”. Nta kopi y’iyo nyandiko bahabwaga, ahubwo buri wese yaheragako asohoka. Bageraga hanze, bagafungura iyo bahasha, bagasanga buri wese yagiye ahabwa  miliyoni imwe y’amafaranga y’amanyarwanda ku mugabo we, n’andi ibihumbi ijana kuri buri mfubyi. Hari uwagirango ayo mafaranga ni make, kuko mu by’ukuri ari amadolari y’amanyamerika y’ubu 1.800 ku mugabo, n’180 kuri buri mfubyi. Gusa muri icyo gihe, inkiko zo mu Rwanda ntawe zari zarigeze ziha amafaranga agera kuri miliyoni mu rwego rw’impozamarira, binyuze mu rubanza ! Nanone nyine si menshi urebye agaciro k’umuntu.  Aho abamaze kuyahabwa bari bateraniye ariko, ku mbuga y’ibiro bya perefe, hari abakozi benshi bo mu rwego rw’iperereza bababuzaga kuganira kandi bari bamaze imyaka irenga 10 batabonana. Ngo Umuryango wa perezida Grégoire Kayibanda wo waba utarahawe iyo mpozamarira, kuko Kayibanda na Verediyana bo batari bafungiye mu Ruhengeri cyangwa ku Gisenyi (!),bityo bakaba batarishwe na Lizinde,  ahubwo bikaba byaremejwe ko bo bazize urw’ikirago.

Ngibyo, nguko”,  wa mugani wa ya mvugo ya kinyarwanda. Buri wese abitekerezeho icyo ashaka. Igice cya 7 cy’iyi nyandiko, ari na cyo cya nyuma, kizaba ari umwanzuro.

 

BIRACYAZA…..

 

Jean de Dieu Musemakweli

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