Tumenye neza intwari za Revolution ya 1959 : Nyakubahwa Grégoire Kayibanda.

Nyakubahwa Grégoire Kayibanda ni muntu ki ?

Grégoire Kayibanda ni mwene Léonidas Rwamanywa na Caroline Nyirambeba. Yavukiye Tare, muri Commune Musambira Prefecture ya Gitarama mu majyepfo y’ u Rwanda kuwa 01 Gicurasi 1924. Amashuri abanza yayize i Tare (1932-1934) kandi ayakomereza Kabgayi (1934-1937). Naho ayisumbuye ayiga mu iseminari nto Saint Léon i Kabgayi (1934-1943). Kuwa 28 Ukuboza 1944 Kayibanda yinjiye mu Iseminari nkuru ya Nyakibanda, kugeza yiyemeje kuyivamo kuwa 15 novembre 1948, kandi agahagarika n’ibyigipadiri ahubwo akerekeza muby’ubwarimu. Yashakanye na Kayibanda Verdianne. Kuwa 20 Mutarama 1949 atangira umwuga w’ubwarimu muri « Institut Léon Classe » kugeza mu 1952. Ibyo kandi akabifatanyaga n’ubuzima busanzwe bwa buri munsi mu gukemura ibibazo binyuranye byari byugarije rubanda rugufi aho atuye. [Paternostre de la Mairieu (1994) 75].

Mu 1953 Kayibanda yoherejwe gukora i Kabgayi muri serivise yo gutegura no kunonosora infashanyigisho zijyanye n’igihe mu biro by’ubugenzuzi bw’amashuri. Guhera muri Kamena muri uwo mwaka kugeza m’Ukuboza 1954 Kayibanda yabaye umwanditsi w’ikinyamakuru « l’AMI».Kayibanda yifashishije itangazamakuru rero, yakomeje guhindura imitekerereze ya rubanda kandi ahindura n’imwe mumikorere y’ubutegetsi itari ihwitse muri icyo gihe. Urugero twatanga ni uko mu gihe itegeko ryabuzaga kwishyira hamwe cyane cyane mubikorwa bya politiki, Kayibanda we yasabaga ko uburenganzira bwo kwishyira hamwe mu m’Asosiyasiyo na Koperative bwahabwa rubanda kandi mu buryo butagabanuweho na gato. [Kayibanda Grégoire, “Notre rôle dans la cité” dans L’ami, n°114, janv.1954 nkuko byandukuwe na Paternostre de la Mairieu].

Ibyo byagize ingaruka nziza cyane mu mitekerereze n’imikorere ya politili. Amashyirahamwe menshi yaravutse kugera ku rwego rwo kuba Amashyaka ya Polilitiki. Hagati aho rero guhera Mu 1955 nibwo Kayibanda yavuye mu bugenzuzi bw’amashuri maze aba : President wa komite ncunga mikorere ya Trafipro (Travail, Fidélité, Progrès), umwanditsi mukuru wa Kinyamateka, yabaye kandi umunyamabanga wihariye wa «Monseigneur Perraudin », ndetse aba n’umwe mu bagize inama ngishwanama yaChefferie ya Marangara. Iyo myanya niyo yafashije cyane cyane Grégoire Kayibanda kumenyekanisha ibitecyerezo bye byiza. Kayibanda aha yari yaramaze kwiyunvamo umuhamagaro wo kuba umucunguzi wa rubanda rugufi nk’uko intego ye yabivugaga : Libertatem filiorum Dei : Tubohore Abana b’Imana.

Uwo muhamagaro kandi ugaragazwa n’amagambo basanze mu ikaye ye (carnet de notes), agira ati : « Mu gihugu aho rubanda ikorerwa ivangura rigaragara kandi ryizweho neza….nsanga kwibanda ku kintu kimwe gusa ntacyo byaba bimaze, ahubwo bidatinze nazasanga nange ntacyo ndicyo…mpisemo rero gukangura igihugu cyanjye kumenya ubushobozi kifitemo…maze nkabafasha kuvumbura ibyo ababakikije bakeneye, nkabasunikira kandi nkabingingira gutanga umusanzu wabo…ntekereza ko ariwo muhamagaro wange mu gihugu kikishakisha, kandi kikireba aho gikwiye guhagurukira hakwiye kandi vuba ». (Paternostre de la Mairieu 1994]. Murunva ko Kayibanda rero yabaye nkurahiye ko agiye gutanga ubuzima bwe bwose mu gufasha rubanda kwibohora.

Kayibanda arongera ati : « Chefu (président du Conseil de chefferie) anfata nk’umuntu warwanya ubutegetsi kandi bigaragara ko hari ukuntu antinya . Yamenyereye kwigirizaho nkana aba sushefu be, ariko njye sinemera amahame ye yose! Intekerezo zanjye zuzuyemo akarengane abantu banjye bagirirwa, kandi sinakwihanganira na gato ubutegetsi butakijyanye n’igihe kandi budashoboye.» Nasomye aya magambo anyibutsa ay’umukambwe Nelson Mandera, wavugaga ko iminyururu iri ku bantu be (abirabura) nawe iba imuriho, ko nta kindi yakora uretse kuyibabohora…kandi ko ari gahunda ndende yiyemeje kugeza ayisohoje cyangwa se kugeza abizize biramutse bibaye ngombwa.

Hari taliki ya 19 Nzeri 1962, Perezida J kennedy wa USa yakira Perezida Grégoire Kayibanda nyuma y’ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda.

Nk’uko bigaragara, Kayibanda yari umugabo utarebera akarengane ngo yituramire, cyangwa ngo yihutire gukemuraibibazo yifashishije inzira ihutaza, cyangwa se, isesa amaraso. Kayibanda yahangayikishijwe cyane n’ikibazo cya rubanda rugufi rwari rwiganjemo abo mu bwoko bw’Abahutu. Abo bari barambuwe uburenganzira bwose bw’ikiremwamuntu, ahubwo bagafatwa nk’ibikoresho. Umuhutu, ntaburenganzira ku mutungo, ku mutekano no kwishyira ukizana yagiraga,emwe no kubaho kwe byabaga ari impuhwe yagiriwe. Kwaka rero no guharanira uburenganzira mbonezamubano n’ubwa politiki n’ubundi bushamikiyeho, murunva ko byo byari inzozi.

Nyamara intwari Kayibanda yakomeje kwitegereza ako karengane kakorerwaga Abahutu kuva aho ubutegetsi bwabo bw’Abahinza butsindiwe n’ingoma nyiginya z’Abatutsi mu gisekuruza cya 15, asanga ataceceka. Nibwo kuwa 24 Werurwe 1957 Kayibanda yegereye bagenzi be aribo: Maximilien Niyonzima, Claver Ndahayo, Isidore Nzeyimana, Calliope Mulindahabi, Godefroid Sentama, Sylvestre Munyambonera, Joseph Sibomana na Joseph Habyarimana ariwe Gitera, maze basinya kandi batangaza kumugaragaro inyandiko bise « Note sur l’aspect social du problème racial indigène au Rwanda ». Iyo nyandiko yari igenewe Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa hamwe n’abategetsi b’Ababirigi bakolonizaga u Rwanda. Iyo nyandiko yasobanuraga akarengane gakorerwaga rubanda rugufi ndetse n’inzira ako karengane kakemurwamo. Yasabaga by’umwihariko ko ibyiza by’igihugu bikwiye gusaranganywantavangura iryo ariryo ryose rishingiweho mu bana b’ u Rwanda. Iyi nyandiko rero yamenyekanye mu itangazamakuru nka Manifesite y’Abahutu, niyo yabaye intangiriro y’urugamba rw’Umuhutu mukwibohora ingoma ya cyami.

Kayibanda hagati aho, abifashijwemo na «Monseigneur Perraudin », kuwa 09 Nzeri 1957 yoherejwe mu mahugurwa ajyanye n’iby’itangazamakuru mu bwanditsi bw’ ikinyamakuru « Journal Vers l’avenir » cyandikirwaga mu Bubirigi.  Kayibanda yagarutse kuwa 08 Ugushyingo 1958, maze ahita akomereza imirimo ye muri Kinyamateka guhera tariki ya 25 Ugushyingo 1958. [Linden (1999) 325].

Twibutse ko muri Kamena 1957, mbere y’amezi 3 ngo Kayibanda ajye i Burayi, muri ya mahugurwa twavuze, yasize ashinze « Mouvement Social Muhutu» yashingiye programu yayo kuri ya Manifeste y’Abahutu. Hagati aho,Umwami Rudahigwa yaje gutanga kuwa 25 Nyakanga 1959, ikibazo kitarakemuka maze asimburwa na murumuna we wahawe izina rya Kigeli V Ndahindurwa kuwa 28 Nyakanga muri uwo mwaka. Impirimbanyi za Demokarasi zibwiraga ko nibura Ndahindurwa azanye amatwara mashya, niko kumwibutsa ubutumwa bwo guhindura ibintu mu nzira y’amahoro bwari bwarashyikirijwe mukuru we.

Nuko mu ibaruwa bashyikirije Umwami Ndahindurwa ubwe ,kuwa 07 Kanama 1959, bongera gusobanura akarengane k’abahutu ndetse berekana n’ibintu bikwiye guhinduka vuba na bwangu mu mitegekere y’igihugu. Mur’ibyo harimo: kwemera ko umuhutu agomba kugira uruhare mu mitegekere y’igihugu cye, gusaranganya ibyiza by’igihugu no gukuraho abategeka bose batabanye neza rubanda. Iyibaruwa yagaragaje rero urukundo intwali za Demokarsi zakundaga rubanda, yagaragaje kandi ukuri n’ubutwalibidashidikanywaho, aba bagabo bari bafite. Muri iyo baruwa baragira bati : «Ibyo duharanira ntitwabihejeje mu rwihisho twabyanditse mubyo amagazeti yise Manifeste y’Abahutu, twabibwiye umwami, twabibwiye Leta, twabwiye intumwa z’Ububirigi, ntitubihisha cyangwa ngo tubishyigikize inzangano no gusebanya. Duhinyura icyo tutabonamo amajyambere rusange y’Abanyarwanda bose tukavuga icyo twifuza ».  Iyo baruwa nayo yashyizweho umukono n’abayobozi ba ya Mouvement twavuze haruguru yaharaniraga uburenganzira bw’Umuhutu, aribo : KAYIBANDA Grégoire (Président Général), NIYONZIMA Maximilien (V/P Général), MURINDAHABI Calliope (Secrétaire général), SIBOMANA Joseph(Trésorier Général).

Reba:http://www.mdrwi.org/rapports%20et%20doc/documents/revolisio%2059/requete%20au%20mwami%20ndahindurwa.pdf

Kayibanda wari ukubutse Iburayi, yaritegereje abona ko ibintu bigeze iwandabaga kandi hakenewe impinduka mu Rwanda. Maze kuwa 19 Ukwakira 1959 ashingaga IshyakaPARMEHUTU (Le Parti du Mouvement de l’Emancipation Hutu). Iri shyaka naryo rikaba ryariyuburuye muri ya«Mouvement social Muhutu ».  PARMEHUTU yaje guhindura izina, yitwa MDR « Mouvement Démocratique Républicain »kandi yiyemeza kwigobotora ingoma ya cyami n’iya gikoronize maze hakajyaho ubuyobozi bushingiye kuri Demokarasi na Repubulika mu Rwanda. [Paternostre de la Mairieu (1994) 158].

Muri aya mahindura y’imitegekere, Umwami mushya Kigeli V Ndahindurwa yagaragaje ko ingengabitekerezo ya cyami idahinduka kandi ko agikeneye abahutu ho abagaragu, gusa yibagirwa ikintu kimwe ko « nta wahagarika rubanda yahagurukiye gukora revolusiyo ». Ibi tuzabigarukaho tuvuga iby’uko Revolisiyo yatangiye n’uko yagenze(1/11/1959- 01/7/1962).

Revolisiyo yarangiye Rubanda yerekanye imbaraga yifitemo. Reka twiyibutse aya mataliki y’ingenzi cyane :

*Kuwa 26 ukwakira 1960 habayeho amatora adafifitse yarangiye ashyizeho inteko na Leta by’agateganyo. Nyakubahwa Gregoire Kayibanda aba Ministre w’intebe naho Habyarimana Joseph Gitera ayobora Inteko.

*Ku wa 28 Mutarama 1961 i Gitarama habaye Kongere idasanzwe, ikuraho ingoma ya cyami( monarchie), ica Karinga n’izayo zose, itangiza ubutegetsi bushingiye kuri Repubulika : uwo munsi Nyakubahwa Dominiko Mbonyumutwa yatorewe kuba Perezida wa mbere.

*Ku wa 25 Nzeri 1961 habayeho amatora rusange yiswe Kamarampaka : rubanda ihamya bidasubirwaho ko yanze ubutegetsi butunzwe (ubwami) na Kigali , ko ishaka rwose ubutegetsi bushingiye kuri rubanda : nyuma y’ukwegura ka Mobnyumutwa , Geregori Kayibanda yatorewe kuba Perezida wa Repubulika, ashyiraho Leta yagejeje u rwanda ku bwigenge taliki ya 1/7/1962.

Nyakubahwa Grégoire Kayibanda wari wabaye Président wa Repubulika ya mbere, yongeye gutorerwa manda ya 2 mu 1965, na manda ya 3 ari nayo ya nyuma mu 1969.[Reyntjens (1985) 408].

Nyamara ariko ngo ntawe uneza rubanda kandi ngoubutegetsi buraryoha ! Nyakubahwa Grégoire Kayibanda waharaniye uburenganzira bwa Rubanda nk’uko intwari Nelson Mandela yaharaniye uburenganzira bw’Abirabura bari baratsikamiwe n’abazungu muri Afurika y’Epfo, yaje gukurwa mu mirimo ye kuwa 05 Nyakanga 1973 na kudeta yitiriwe Juvénal Habyarimana n’inshuti ze. Maze Nyakubahwa Grégoire Kayibanda bamugenera igihano cy’urupfu kuwa 26 Kamena 1974. [L’arrêté N° 0001/ 74/ CM de la cour martiale le 29 juin 1974]. Icyo gihano cyaje guhindurwamo gufungwa burundu maze Kayibanda avanwa muri Izari Rwerere aho yari yafungiwe, afungirwa iwe mu rugo i Kavumu ho muri Gitarama kuwa 11 Nzeri 1974, aho yatabarukiye nk’intwari Mahatma Gandhi, kuwa 15 Ukuboza 1976. [Pierre-Célestin Kabanda (2012) 292-294].

Harakabaho intwali za Repubulika.

Umutaripfana Venant Nkurunziza.

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One comment

  1. Ni byiza kuba mugize initiative yo kwibutsa IMYIVURUGUTANYO YO MUW’I 1959!
    Ariko iriya Foto ya Prezida Kayibanda na Prezida Habyarimana a été trop éttirée! Il faudrait corriger tout cela!
    Que le Seigneur vous bénisse!

    Jean S. Barahinyura

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