INTAMBARA Z’ URUDACA MURI KONGO : NI IKI ITSINDWA RYA M 23 RIHINDURA?

Eugene

Eugene Ndahayo yunze mu ryo benshi bamaze iminsi bavuga.

Uko intambara zakurikiranye.

Kuva muri za 60 cyabona ubwigenge, igihugu cya Kongo ntikigeze kigira amahoro arambye. Icyo gihugu cyakunze kurangwa n’intambara zidahosha.

Byagiye bivugwa kenshi ko Abanyekongo babonye ubwigenge batarageza igihe cyo kuba bakwiyoborera igihugu cyabo. Mu ntambara zose zabaye kuva icyo gihe ingabo z’igihugu ntizigeze kandi zishobora ubwazo kurengera ubusugire bw’igihugu, kurinda umutekano no kugarura ihumure. Leta ya Kongo yagiye buri gihe itabarwa n’amahanga. Benshi muribuka uko Pierre MULELE n’agaco ke bafashe Bandundu n’agace kanini k’intara y’uburasirazuba bwa Kongo kagizwe na Uvira na Fizi. Leta y’icyo gihe yagombye kwitabaza ingabo z’amahanga kugirango ibashe guhangana no kwivugana MULELE.

Mu Gushyingo 65, Mobutu, wari serija icyo gihe, yakoze « coup d’Etat ». Muri 67, J SCHRAM yagerageje guhirika MOBUTU aturutse i Bukavu ariko ntiyabigeraho. Ingabo za Kongo na bwo zagombye kwitabaza ingabo z’amahanga kubera kutagira ibikoresho bihagije n’ubuyobozi buhamye (désorganisée). Amahanga yateretse Mobutu ku ntebe y’ubutegetsi ni na yo yamufashije kubushimangira no gukumira abataravugaga rumwe na we.

Uko kwitabaza ingabo z’amahanga bigaragaza bihagije intege nke n’akajagari (désorganisation) mu ngabo za kongo kuva muri za 60 kugeza na n’ubu.

Ikindi kiranga izo ntambara ni uko Abanyekongo bazishoza baba bashaka gufata ubutegetsi babifashijwemo n’ibihugu byo mu karere n’amahanga byabananira intambara bakayihindura iyo gushaka ubwigenge bw’intara bakomokamo.

Ni muri urwo rwego Moïse TSHOMBE yatangaje ubwigenge bwaKatanga ku ya 7 nyakanga 1960. KALONJI na we ni byo yakoze ubwo atangaza Leta yigenga ya KASAI y’Amagepfo. Muri 1976 uwitwa MBUMBA Nathanaël na we yashoje urugamba incuro ebyili muri Shaba ; mu myaka yakurikiyeho,Laurent Désiré Kabila n’ingabo ze bagabye ibitero ubugira kabili muri 1985 ahitwa Moba.

N’ubwo ariko buri gihe hari abanyamahanga babaga bihishe inyuma y’izo ntambara, ntawakwirengagiza ko gupfukirana Abanyekongo, ubuyobozi bubi no guheza bamwe ku mutungo w’igihugu na byo biri mubikurura izo ntambara. Ni uko uduco tuzwi kw’izina rya Mayi-Mayi twagiye tuvuka hirya no hino ari na ko duhindura amazina dukurikije icyo tuvuga ko turwanira, akenshi gishingiye ku bwoko : KATUKU muri Walikale/Bunyakiri, NGILIMA muri Masisi, BATIRI muri Rutshuru, KASINDIENS muri Rwenzori.

Urugamba rwa AFDL muri 1996 rwiswe inkundura yo kwibohora rwari rushingiye ku bibazo by’Abanyekongo ubwabo n’ibibazo batewe n’abaturanyi :

Muri Nyakanga 1994: impunzi z’Abanyarwanda zirenga miliyoni zahungiye muri Zaïre nyuma ya jenoside n’intsinzi ya FPR. Muri izo mpunzi harimo ingabo zahoze ari iz’u Rwanda n’Interahamwe zari zimaze gukora ibara mu gihugu.

Nzeli – Ukwakira 1996 : Ingabo za Kongo n’Abanyamulenge bakozanijeho mu ntara ya Kivu. Ubutegetsi bwa Kongo bwahise burega u Rwanda ko ari rwo rurimo guhembera imyivumbagatanyo mu karere ka Uvira (Kivu y’amajyepfo). Mu minsi yakurikiye, AFDL iyobowe na Laurent Désiré KABILA yatangaje ko ivugira inyeshyamba ziyemeje guhangana na Leta ya Kongo.

17 Gicurasi 1997: Nyuma y’amezi 8 gusa, AFDL yari mu kibaba cy’ingabo z’u Rwanda yafashe ubutegetsi, Laurent Désiré KABILA aba Perezida w’igihugu asimbura MOBUTU wari umaze imyaka 32 ku butegetsi. Muri Nyakanga ni bwo KAGAME yemeye ku mugaragaro ko ari u Rwanda rwapanze rukanayobora intambara yo kuvana Mobutu ku butegetsi.

Urugamba rwa AFDL rwaje mu gihe abaturage ba Kongo n’amashyaka ya politiki yari ahanganye n’ubutegetsi bari bararambiwe igitugu cya MOBUTU na we utari ugifite ijambo mu nteko y’amahanga kuko abamukoreshaga bari bamaze kumukuraho amaboko ; ingabo za Kongo zari zarabaye nk’impehe, zaramunzwe na ruswa kubera kudahembwa, bigaragara ko zidashobora guhangana n’ibitero bya AFDL yari ishyigikiwe n’ingabo z’ibihugu by’u Rwanda na Uganda na byo bishyigikiwe na USA, UK… Muri iyo ntambara ingabo za Kongo ntizigeze zirwana usibye i Kenge muri Bandundu no mu kibaya cya Ruzizi muri Kivu y’amajyepfo.

Bidateye Kabili havutse amakimbirane hagati ya Kabila na Kagame :

Ku ya 2 Kanama 1998 : RCD yashoje intambara muri Kivu. Iyo ntambara yafashe intera ndende kuko yahindutse intambara y’akarere kose ihanganisha ingabo za Kongo zishyigikiwe na Angola , Namibiya na Zimbabwe ku ruhande rumwe na Uganda , Rwanda m’umutwe wa RCD ku rundi ruhande.

Muri Kanama 1999 : hatangiye intambara hagati y’amoko muri ITURI kugeza muri 2006 ihitana inzirakarengane zigera kuri 60.000.

Abashoje Intambara ya Kabili yitiriwe RCD ntaho bari bataniye n’ab’iya mbere usibye ko noneho atari MOBUTU wari ku butegetsi ari KABILA na AFDL bari bahanganye n’abari babateretse ku bugetsi. Aho bitandukaniye ni uko mu maso y’Abanyekongo, iyo ntambara itafashwe nk’iyo kwibohora, ahubwo yabaye intambara yo kuvutsa Kongo ubusugire bwayo no kwigarurira intara zimwe na zimwe z’igihugu, cyane cyane Intara ya Kivu. Ba Runyunyuzi na ba Mpatsibihugu ntibishimiye politiki ya Laurent Désiré KABILA yari ibangamiye inyungu zabo bafata icyemezo cyo kumuvanaho bakoresheje na none u Rwanda na Uganda . Ku ya 16 Mutarama 2001, Laurent-Désiré Kabila yarishwe asimburwa n’umuhungu we, Joseph Kabila.

Kwica KABILA bakamusimbuza umuhungu we ariko ntibyakemuye ibibazo bya Kongo n’ikibazo cy’umutekano mu bihugu byo mu karere.

Ku ya 29 Kamena 2004 : umugi wa Bukavu wafashwe igihe gito n’abasirikare bigometse bayobowe na Laurent Nkunda. Nyuma y’aho muri 2008 umutwe wa CNDP watangije imirwano muri Kivu y’Amajyaruguru.

Muri Mata 2012, bamwe mu basilikare ba CNDP bari barinjijwe mu ngabo za Kongo barivumbagatanyije bitwaje ko amasezerano hagati ya CNDP na Leta ya Kongo atubuhirijwe. Ku ya 6 Gicurasi 2012 bashinze umutwe wa M23. Mu kwezi kwa 11, M23 yafashe Goma iyimaramo iminsi 11.

Mu minsi ishize, hagati y’italiki ya 25 Ukwakira n’iya 5 Ugushyingo 2013, ni bwo Ingabo za Kongo, zibifashijwemo na Monusco zatsinze ruhenu M23.

Ni iki gituma muri Kongo hahora intambara ?

Nk’uko natangiye mbivuga, Kongo yakomeje kurangwa n’intambara z’urudaca ari nako amahanga abyivangamo. Ikibazo akaba ari n’aho kiri : kuki nta ntambara yo muri Kongo itaba irimo amahanga ?

Impamvu nta yindi ni uko Kongo ari igihugu gikize cyane (« fabuleusement riche ») kandi kuri byose. Cyera umwami w’Ababiligi, Léopold II, iyo yavugaga Kongo yongeragaho“ce magnifique gâteau africain”. Koko rero Kongo iri mu bihugu bya mbere kw’isi bikize ku mutungo kamere. Ubutaka bwa Kongo bushobora gutunga abantu bagera kuri miliyari 2 ! Usibye ubukungu mu by’ubuhinzi (ikawa, icyayi, cacao, caoutchouc, amamesa, quinquina, itabi, n’ibindi) Kongo ifite amashyamba manini kandi arimo ibiti bitaboneka henshi ; ifite amabuye y’agaciro y’ubwoko bwose kandi harimo n’akenerwa mu gukora ibyogajuru no muri «technologie» igezweho ; Kongo ifite amazi menshi : urugomero rwa Inga rwonyine rushobora guha umuriro w’amashanyarazi Afrika yose ! Muri iyi minsi habonetse na Peteroli !

Kongo kandi ni « stratégiquement bien situé » ku mugabane w’Afrika.

Ayo mahirwe ni na yo byago bya Kongo kuko ba Mpatsibihugu na ba Runyunyuzi bakora ibishoboka byose ngo bigarurire banagenzure icyo gihugu. Ntibihanganira icyo ari cyo cyose cyahungabanya inyungu zabo cyangwa se cyatuma badashobora kurya kuri « ce magnifique gâteau ». Muri ibyo byose bifashisha bamwe mu Banyekongo, baba abari ku butegetsi cyangwa se abarwanya ubutegetsi buriho. Ni uko Ababiligi bashyigikiye Tshombe, URSS igashyigikira Lumumba, USA, UK na France bikajya ku ruhande rwa Kasavubu na Mobutu. Kubera ko n’akenshi abo Banyekongo baba bahagarariye ubwoko bwabo cyangwa uturere bakomokamo kurusha uko bahagarariye inyungu za Kongo muri rusange, usanga bikurura intambara zishingiye ku moko cyangwa ku turere.

U Rwanda na rwo ni ko rwabigenje rwitwaza ikibazo cy ‘Interahamwe n’umutekano w’Abatutsi bo muri Kongo kugirango rubone impamvu yo kwinjira no kugenzura intara ya Kivu ihana imbibi n’u Rwanda, ari na ko rusahura..

Uko gushyira imbere inyungu z’ubwoko cyangwa akarere bigira ingaruka zikomeye ku miyoborere y’igihugu cya Kongo aho usanga hari imirongo itatu ihanganye muri icyo gihugu : aba « fédéralistes », aba « unitaristes » n’aba « séparatistes ». Amahanga akaba yarakomeje guhembera ayo macakubili kugeza na n’ubu.

Itsindwa rya M23 rizahindura iki ?

Kubera uruhare rukomeye ibihugu nka USA na UK byabigizemo, itsindwa rya M23 kuri Kongo ni intambwe ikomeye mu kurengera ubusugire bw’igihugu, kubungabunga umutekano no kwongera guhuza Abanyakongo.

Mu Rwanda, intambara ya M23 isigiye ubutegetsi bw’i Kigali isura mbi. Amaraporo menshi kandi anyuranye yagaragaje bihagije ko u Rwanda ari rwo rwari ruri inyuma y’inyeshyamba za M23. Aha twavuga raporo y’umulyango w’abibumbye yasohotse muri Kanama 2013 yerekanye ku buryo budasubirwaho inkunga u Rwanda rutera M23 na raporo y’uwo muryango yasohotse muri Nzeri 2013 igaragaza uruhare rw’u Rwanda mu gushora abana mu bikorwa by’intambara byashegeshe Kagame ku buryo bukomeye. Hari na raporo z’umuryango Human Rights Watch. Izo raporo zose, bikubitiyeho no kuba ibyo bihugu byari bimaze kubona ko bishobora guhombera mu kaduruvayo kadashira ko muri Kongo (cyane ko Abashinwa n’ibihugu bya BRICS baticaye ubusa) biri mu byatumye USA na UK bisanzwe bishyigikiye Kagame bihagurukira ikibazo cya Kongo bikanashyira igitsure gikaze kuri Leta y’u Rwanda yari yarakomeje guseta ibirenge ibeshya ko ntaho ihuriye na M23 !

Intambara ya M23 yatumye kandi ibihugu bihuriye mu muryango wa SADC na byo bifata uruhande ku mugaragaro byohereza ingabo muri Kongo guhangana n’iza Kagame na Museveni. Izo ngabo na Monusco zifatanije na FARDC ni zo zatsinze urugamba. Ni ukuvuga rero ko u Rwanda rutazongera kuvogera Kongo uko rushaka kuko bitarugwa neza.

Bamwe mu batavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi bw’i Kigali bemeza ko amahanga agiye gukomorera FDLR ndetse akanayitiza ingufu ikaba yatsinsura ubutegetsi bwa Kagame ikoresheje imbaraga cyangwa se binyuze mu mishyikirano. Ubu barakora ibishoboka byose ngo babere abavugizi FDLR bamaze imyaka bitaza iyo batayivumiraga ku gahera.

Abavuga ibyo bemeza ko kuba amahanga yarahagurukiye M23 ari ikimenyetso cy’uko ayo mahanga, cyane cyane USA na UK byari bisanzwe bishyigikiye Kagame, yamukuyeho amaboko ndetse ko n’amagambo Perezida Kikwete yavuze muri Gicurasi 2012 akaba yarakuruye amakimbirane akomeye hagati y’u Rwanda na Tanzaniya yari yayatumwe n’ibyo bihugu !

Nyamara iyo witonze ukareba usanga :

  1. Nta cyahindutse kuri USA , UK no ku muryango w’Abanyaburayi (UE) ku buryo babona FDLR : bose bumva ko FDLR ari ikibazo k’umutekano wa Kongo n’akarere k’ibiyaga bigari. Hakozwe amaraporo menshi ashimangira iyo myumvire. Byaba ari byo, byaba atari byo, ni uko bifatwa.

  1. FDLR yatangiye gufatirwa ingamba zikaze zo kuyihashya :

  1. Abayobozi bayo ba politiki barafashwe barafungwa ;

  2. Umugaba w’ingabo zayo arashakishwa na CPI

  1. Ari amasezerano ya Addis-Abeba (accord cadre), ari imyanzuro (résolution) y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ishyiraho « Brigade d’intervention » … byose bishimangira ko imitwe y’inyeshyamba yose iri ku butaka bwa Kongo, uhereye kuri M23 na FDLR, igomba guhashywa. Ndetse kugirango bigaragare ko atari amagambo gusa, Monusco na « Brigade d’intervention » byahawe ububasha busesuye bwo kurwanya iyo mitwe.Iki kiri mu mpamvu za mbere zatumye M23 itsindwa.Kuva FDLR iri ku butaka bwa Kongo kandi na résolutions mpuzamahanga, cyane kuva aho amahanga ahagurukiye ikibazo cyo muri Kongo, zose zikaba zaragiye zibangikanya ikibazo cya M23 n’icya FDLR, biragoye nyuma y’itsindwa rya M23 ngo amahanga yirengagize ikibazo cya FDLR.

  1. Uko Kagame adashobora gusubira muri Kongo, ni nako FDLR idashobora kuguma muri Kongo. Usibye Kagame wabigize intero n’inyikirizo, ntawe uyobewe ko aho iri FDLR nta cyo itwaye u Rwanda . Abo igitwaye ni Abanyekongo ibereye ku butaka kuko biteza umutekano mucye mu turere iherereyemo kubera ubushyamirane n’indi mitwe y’inyeshyamba batajya imbizi bahurira muri utwo turere ; ntawakwirengagiza kandi ko no kuba ihari biha Kagame urwitwazo rwo kuvogera igihugu cya Kongo yitwaje “guhiga interahamwe zihora zishyugumbwa kongera kumena amaraso y’Abanyarwanda”! Ntawe kandi utarumvise, nyuma y’itsindwa rya M23, amagambo ya Martin KOBLER ukuriye Monusco muri Kongo agaragaza ko ari bo bagiye kurinda umupaka w’u Rwanda na Kongo ngo kugirango FDLR itazabona uko itaha yitwaje intwaro. KOBLER avuga ibyo, Lambert MENDE (Minisitiri w’Itangazamakuru akaba n’Umuvugizi wa guverinoma ya Kongo) na we yari yaraye atangaje ko ingabo za Kongo zigiye kugaba ibitero kuri FDRL zigamije kuyambura intwaro. Itangazo rya Perezida w’Akanama gashinzwe Amakoro kw’Isi ryo ku wa 14 Ugushyingo 2013 na ryo ni ho rigusha. Ibi bishatse kuvuga ko :

  1. kubera ko FDLR idashobora kuguma ku butaka bwa Kongo igifite intwaro, bagiye kuyihatira kwinjira muri gahunda ya DDRRR, abashaka gutaha bagataha, abatabishaka bakareba ibihugu bibakira, abo Kongo yemereye ubwenegihungu bakabimurira kure y’intara ya Kivu.

  1. Kagame atazongera kwinjira muri Kongo yitwaje gukurikirana yo FDLR. Nyuma y’ibi byose rero, kuvuga ko itsindwa rya M23 ari amahirwe kuri FDLR yo kugira imishyikirano na Kagame ni ukwihuta, cyane ko no kugeza ubu nta cyari cyavugwa kuri « deal » Kagame yagiranye na USA na UK (bidasiba gushimangira ko u Rwanda ari igihugu cy’incuti) kugirango adakomeza gushyigikira M23 no kwivanga mu bibazo bya Kongo. Ibyo ari byo byose, n’ubwo tutaramenya ibyo bamwemereye (usibye ko harimo guhita bongera gutanga imfashanyo zari zarahagaze), muri ibi bihe nta mpamvu n’imwe yatuma bamusaba kugirana imishyikirano na FDLR kandi nta ntambara iri mu Rwanda ngo ibe yabangamira umutekano wa Kongo muri iki gihe hari ubushake bugaragara bwo kugarura umutekano muri icyo gihugu. Ahubwo FDLR itarebye neza yamara urubanza, ibyo bamwe bitaga amahirwe bikaba inzira y’umusaraba !

Eugène NDAHAYO

Président a.i

Bayukuwe mu: Akanyamakuru ka FDU, Ugushyingo 2013 

Inkuru bifitanye isano:

« Nyuma ya M23, hagiye kurwanywa FDLR »: Ambasaderi w’Ubufaransa muri 

Inama y’ibihugu bya SADC na ICGL tuyitezeho iki?

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